Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: major (English), gregory (English), castañeta (Espanol), jaqueta (Espanol)
 
Stegastes arcifrons (Heller & Snodgrass, 1903)


Yellowtail gregory,     Island major



Body oval, compressed; 1 pair of nostrils; margin of preopercle serrated; margin of bone under eye serrated, without notch it and the bone before it; mouth small, protrusible; teeth in single row, long and close-set; lower gill rakers 12-14; a single continuous dorsal fin, XII, 15 (rarely 16); anal rays II, 13 (rarely 12); pectoral rays 20 (rarely 19); no projecting short spines at upper and lower base of tail fin; caudal fin bluntly forked; scales are moderately large and rough; body scaled, head largely scaled (snout scaled to nostrils), as are the basal parts of the median fins; lateral-line scales 20 (rarely 19); lateral line incomplete, ends under end of dorsal fin base.


Dark brown, head and breast lighter, often with violet color on gill cover;  pale yellowish lips; tail fin  bright yellow; juveniles similar, but yellow of tail extends forward onto posterior part of body and rear of dorsal and anal fins; a large ocellated black spot near the base of the front of the soft dorsal.


Size: to 16 cm.

Habitat: abundant along rocky shores.

Depth: 1-30 m.



Galapagos Islands, Malpelo Island, and Isla del Coco, Isla Gorgona (Colombia) and Isla de la Plata (Ecuador).
   
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Biology

Adults inhabit coral and rocky reefs (Ref. 9334). Omnivorous (Ref. 9334). Adults are territorial and aggressive, vigorously driving off other fishes and certain invertebrates from their feeding and reproductive territories. They graze on algae and invertebrates including tubeworms, small crustaceans, and the tentacles of anemones (Ref. 28023). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found in the Galapagos, Malpelo, Cocos Islands, Isla Plata (Ecuador), and coastal Ecuador from Manabi to Salinas. This species is also a recorded vagrant off the coast of Costa Rica.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, TEP oceanic island (s) endemic, Multiple oceanic islands endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo)
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Eastern Pacific: Costa Rica and from Cocos, Malpelo and Galapagos islands (Ref. 9334).
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 1 (S) - 30 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15 - 16; Analspines: 2; Analsoft rays: 12 - 13
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Size

Length max (cm): 16.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 130 mm SL
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Max. size

13.0 cm SL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 7247)); max. reported age: 27 years (Ref. 52465)
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Diagnostic Description

Exhibits geographic color variations.
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Type Information

Paratype for Stegastes arcifrons
Catalog Number: USNM 153624
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): Snodgrass & Heller
Year Collected: 1898
Locality: Galapagos: Chatham Island, Chatham Island (San Cristobal), Galapagos Islands, Pacific
  • Paratype: Heller, E. & Snodgrass, R. E. 1903. Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences. 5: 202.
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Paratype for Stegastes arcifrons
Catalog Number: USNM 50047
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): Snodgrass & Heller
Locality: James Island, Galapagos, James Island (Santiago or San Salvador), Galapagos Islands, Pacific
  • Paratype: Heller, E. & Snodgrass, R. E. 1903. Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences. 5: 202.
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Paratype for Stegastes arcifrons
Catalog Number: USNM 50048
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Collector(s): R. Snodgrass & E. Heller
Locality: Narborough I., Narborough Island (Fernandina), Galapagos Islands, Pacific
  • Paratype: Heller, E. & Snodgrass, R. E. 1903. Proceedings of the Washington Academy of Sciences. 5: 202.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species inhabits coral and rocky reefs (Allen, 1991) to depths of 20m. This fish is omnivorous, feeding primarily on algae and invertebrates including tubeworms, small crustaceans, and the tentacles of anemones (Grove and Lavenberg, 1997).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; non-migratory; marine; depth range 1 - 20 m (Ref. 9334)
  • Schneider, W. and F. Krupp 1995 Pomacentridae. Castañetas, jaquetas y petacas. p. 1392-1404. In W. Fischer, F. Krupp, W. Schneider, C. Sommer, K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) Guia FAO para Identification de Especies para lo Fines de la Pesca. Pacifico Centro-Oriental. 3 Vols. FAO, Rome. (Ref. 9334)   http://www.fishbase.org/references/FBRefSummary.php?id=9334&speccode=11853 External link.
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Depth range based on 12 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 10 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.3 - 21
  Temperature range (°C): 23.233 - 27.666
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.599 - 5.562
  Salinity (PPS): 32.938 - 34.347
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.243 - 4.671
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.327 - 0.643
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.028 - 4.346

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.3 - 21

Temperature range (°C): 23.233 - 27.666

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.599 - 5.562

Salinity (PPS): 32.938 - 34.347

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.243 - 4.671

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.327 - 0.643

Silicate (umol/l): 2.028 - 4.346
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 1 - 20m.
From 1 to 20 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Reef only, Rocks, Corals, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom)

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Omnivore

Diet: benthic microalgae, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), sessile crustacea, sessile worms
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).
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Reproduction

Egg Type: Benthic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Stegastes arcifrons

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Stegastes arcifrons

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Allen, G., Robertson, R., Rivera, R.,Edgar, G., Merlen, G., Zapata, F. & Barraza, E.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is restricted to a few offshore islands and coastal Costa Rica and Ecuador in the Eastern Pacific. However, it is locally abundant, there are no major threats for this species, and no current indication of population decline. It is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
This species is extremely abundant in shallow reef habitats in Galapagos, Cocos, and Malpelo Islands.

In the Galapagos archipelago it had an overall mean abundance of 8.30 ind./500 m2 (Edgar et al. 2004).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species. In Galapagos, a minor decline in population numbers accompanied the 1997/98 El Niño event, but was followed by a full population recovery within one year.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no conservation measures known for this species. However, it is present in Marine Protected Areas in Galapagos, Malpelo, Cocos, Machalilla and Gorgona (WDPA 2006).
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Wikipedia

Stegastes arcifrons

Stegastes arcifrons, commonly known as the island major or Galapagos gregory, is a damselfish of the family Pomacentridae. It is native to the eastern Pacific Ocean, its range extending from Costa Rica to the Cocos Islands, Malpelo Island and the Galapagos Islands. It is found on rocky and coral reefs at depths ranging from 1 to 20 m (3 ft 3 in to 65 ft 7 in).[3]

Status[edit]

Stegastes arcifrons has a wide distribution and is common in many parts of its range and its populations appear to be stable. No particular threats have been identified and the IUCN rate it as being of "Least Concern".[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Allen, G.; Robertson, R.; Rivera, R.; Edgar, G.; Merlen, G.; Zapata, F.; Barraza, E. (2010). "Stegastes arcifrons". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2014-01-08. 
  2. ^ Bailly, Nicolas (2013). "Stegastes arcifrons (Heller & Snodgrass, 1903)". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2014-01-08. 
  3. ^ "Stegastes arcifrons (Heller & Snodgrass, 1903): Island major". FishBase. Retrieved 2014-01-08. 
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