Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: gregory (English), major (English), jaqueta (Espanol), castañeta (Espanol)
 
Stegastes acapulcoensis (Fowler, 1944)


Acapulco damselfish



Body oval, robust, compressed; 1 pair of nostrils; margin of preopercle serrated; margin of bone under eye serrated, without notch it and the bone before it; mouth small, protrusible;  teeth in single row, long and close-set;  gill rakers 17-21; a single continuous dorsal fin, XII, 15 (rarely 16); anal rays II, 13; pectoral rays usually 21 or 22 (rarely 20 or 23); no projecting short spines at upper and lower base of tail fin; caudal fin bluntly forked; scales are moderately large and rough; body scaled, head largely scaled (snout scaled to nostrils), as are the basal parts of the median fins; lateral-line scales 20; lateral line incomplete, ends under end of dorsal fin base.



Grey-brown, lighter on head and anterior part of body, most of scales with blackish margin; white uppermost pectoral rays, a prominent white band across base of rays on outer face of pectoral-fin axil; juveniles  bright blue with a prominent ocellus at the base of the soft dorsal fin and an ocellated black spot on the dorsal edge of the caudal peduncle.




Size: reaches a length of 18 cm.

Occurs along rocky shores.

Depth: about 1-16 m.

The central Gulf of California to Chile plus the Revillagigedos, Galapagos, Cocos and Malpelo.   
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Biology

Adults inhabit rocky reefs (Ref. 9334). Territorial herbivore, feed on farmed turf-algae within their territories (Ref. 57615). Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).
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Distribution

Range Description

This species is endemic to the Eastern Pacific, and is found from the central Gulf of California to Lobos de Afuera, Peru, including the Revillagigedo, Galapagos, Cocos and Malpelo Islands.
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Eastern Pacific: Baja California, Mexico to Lobos de Afuera, Peru, including the Cocos and Galapagos islands (Ref. 9334).
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 1 (S) - 16 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15 - 16; Analspines: 2; Analsoft rays: 13
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Size

Length max (cm): 18.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 140 mm SL
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Max. size

17.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 55763)); max. reported age: 32 years (Ref. 52465)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
This species is inhabits rocky reefs (Allen, 1991) to depths of 16m with juveniles occurring commonly in tidepools. In the Gulf of Chiriqui, Panamá, this species was found in deeper waters over middle sized rocks, massive corals, and exposed shallow rocky reef and zones of madreporic branching coral (Dominici-Arosemena and Wolff, 2006). In the Galapagos, this species is most common in the shallow subtidal zone in rock boulder habitat in sheltered bays. It often occurs in the same habitat as Stegastes arcifrons in the Galapagos Islands, and possibly forms hybrids with that species.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

reef-associated; non-migratory; marine; depth range 2 - 16 m (Ref. 57763)
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Depth range based on 31 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 2 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.3 - 20
  Temperature range (°C): 26.928 - 27.666
  Nitrate (umol/L): 1.599 - 5.562
  Salinity (PPS): 32.938 - 33.371
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.243 - 4.671
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.327 - 0.628
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.028 - 4.148

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.3 - 20

Temperature range (°C): 26.928 - 27.666

Nitrate (umol/L): 1.599 - 5.562

Salinity (PPS): 32.938 - 33.371

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.243 - 4.671

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.327 - 0.628

Silicate (umol/l): 2.028 - 4.148
 
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Depth: 2 - 16m.
From 2 to 16 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated.
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Salinity: Marine, Brackish

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Reef only, Rocks, Corals, Reef associated (reef + edges-water column & soft bottom), Estuary

FishBase Habitat: Reef Associated
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Trophic Strategy

Inhabits rocky reefs (Ref. 9334). Territorial herbivore, feed on farmed turf-algae within their territories (Ref. 57615).
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Omnivore

Diet: benthic microalgae, mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), sessile crustacea, sessile worms
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Oviparous, distinct pairing during breeding (Ref. 205). Eggs are demersal and adhere to the substrate (Ref. 205). Males guard and aerate the eggs (Ref. 205).
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Reproduction

Egg Type: Benthic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Stegastes acapulcoensis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 11
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2010

Assessor/s
Allen, G., Robertson, R., Rivera, R., Edgar, G., Merlen, G., Zapata, F. & Barraza, E.

Reviewer/s
Carpenter, K., Polidoro, B. & Livingstone, S. (Global Marine Species Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This species is widespread in the Eastern Pacific, and is common in many parts of its range. There are no major threats for this species, and no current indication of population decline. It is listed as Least Concern.
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IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
This species is common in many parts of its range. The population in the Galapagos Islands is thought to be increasing since the 1980s.

This species was studied in different sites at Galapagos archipelago, with an overall mean abundance of 0.01 ind./500 m2 (Edgar et al. 2004); however, the species occurs frequently in water shallower than that surveyed (GE). This fish was studied in Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica (Dominici-Arosemena et al. 2005) with a density of 0.07±0.09 ind./ m2.. At Gulf Dulce, Costa Rica, it had a density of 0.301±0.435 ind./ m2, - relative abundance of 8.128% (Figueroa, 2001). Within a five-site-study survey, at Catalinas Islands, this fish was observed in 3 sites, with 47 overall observations (Espinoza and Salas, 2005). S. acapulcoensis was not recorded in a survey made at Los Islotes, Gulf of California (Aburto-Oropeza and Balart, 2001). A survey at Gorgona Island coral reefs, Colombia (Rubio, 1986), showed that this fish seems to be frequent in sandy bottoms and tide-pools while occasional in rocky and coralline bottoms. Zapata and Morales (1997), also in the same place, recorded a density of 0.366±0.465 ind./10 m2, with an observational frequency of 70.3%.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
There are no major threats known for this species. According to Dominici-Arosemena et al. (2005), it is a important aquarium fish in Gulf of Papagayo, Costa Rica, but collection is unlikely to affect the total population.
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Least Concern (LC)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There are no known conservation measures for this species. However, this species distribution falls partially into a number of Marine Protected Areas in the Eastern Pacific region (WDPA 2006).
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Wikipedia

Stegastes acapulcoensis

Stegastes acapulcoensis, commonly called the Acapulco major, the Acapulco damselfish, or the Acapulco gregory, is a damselfish of the family Pomacentridae. It is native to the eastern Pacific Ocean. It is a common species and the IUCN rates it as being of "Least Concern".

Distribution and habitat[edit]

S. acapulcoensis is native to the tropical and subtropical eastern Pacific Ocean. Its range extends from Baja California and Mexico to the Cocos Islands, the Galapagos Islands, and Lobos de Afuera Island in the Lambayeque Region of Peru. It is found on or near reefs at depths down to about 16 m (52 ft).[3] It is often found over sandy seabeds and in tide pools, but also sometimes in rocky or coralline habitats.[1]

Status[edit]

S. acapulcoensis is common in many parts of its range, and in the Galapagos Islands, the population seems to be increasing. No particular threats have been identified and the IUCN rates it as being of "Least Concern".[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Allen, G.; Robertson, R.; Rivera, R.; Edgar, G.; Merlen, G.; Zapata, F.; Barraza, E. (2010). "Stegastes acapulcoensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 2014-01-08. 
  2. ^ Bailly, Nicolas (2013). "Stegastes acapulcoensis (Fowler, 1944)". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved 2014-01-08. 
  3. ^ "Stegastes acapulcoensis (Fowler, 1944): Acapulco major". FishBase. Retrieved 2014-01-08. 
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