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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: houndshark (English), tollo (Espanol)
 
Triakis maculata Kner & Steindachner, 1867


Spotted houndshark


A medium-sized,  very stout shark with a short, broadly rounded snout; eyes are horizontal ovals; front nostrils wide apart, front nasal flaps lobate, not reaching mouth and well separated from each other; long upper lip furrows that reach the lower symphysis of the mouth;  teeth semi-molar-like, with straight erect points and side points absent or poorly developed; pectoral fins broadly curved in adults; dorsal fins of similar size; rear margin of 1st  dorsal oblique; origin of second dorsal fin well forward of anal fin origin; anal fin smaller than and with origin under middle of second dorsal; tail strongly asymmetrical, lower lobe without point; fins with rounded tips.


Generally light grey becoming white on ventral surface; usually scattered black spots on body, but sometimes plain-colored.


Reaches: 180 cm, possibly 240 cm.

Habitat: probably reefs and soft bottoms.

Depth: 10-200 m?.

Galapagos Archipelago and southern Ecuador to northern Chile.
   
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Biology

Found on the continental shelf, mostly inshore. Possibly to 240 cm. Probably feeds on benthic invertebrates (Ref. 28023). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449), with about 14 young to a litter. Size of full-term fetuses 30 to 40 cm. Utilized for human consumption.
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Distribution

Range Description

Triakis maculata is found in the Southeast Pacific from Peru, northern Chile and the Galapagos Islands. Mexican records for this species are erroneous (Compagno in prep).
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, TEP non-endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic, Temperate Eastern Pacific, primarily, Peruvian province, primarily, Continent + Island (s), Continent, Island (s)

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Eastern Pacific: Galapagos Islands and from Peru to northern Chile. Mexican records of this species are erroneous.
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Eastern Pacific.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 10 (G) - 200 (G)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 240.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 1800 mm TL
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Max. size

180 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 244))
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Type Information

Type for Triakis maculata
Catalog Number: USNM 77699
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Illustration
Collector(s): R. Coker
Locality: Lobos De Tierra, Peru, Pacific
  • Type: Evermann, B. W. & Radcliffe, L. 1917. Bulletin of the United States National Museum. No. 95: 9, fig 2.; pl. 2.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
A temperate inshore species found on the continental shelf. Very little known of its biology but it is probably ovoviviparous (Compagno in prep).

Triakis maculata reaches a maximum size of 180 to 240 cm total length (TL), although a confirmed size at maturity is unknown (Compagno in prep). The size at birth for this species is 30 to 40 cm TL and one female was found to have a litter of 14 pups (Compagno in prep).

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; marine
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Soft bottom only, Mud, Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
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Trophic Strategy

Found on the continental shelf, mostly inshore. Possibly to 240 cm. Probably feeds on benthic invertebrates.
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Ovoviviparous, embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
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Reproduction

Egg Type: Live birth, No pelagic larva
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A2bd

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2007

Assessor/s
Romero, M. & Leandro, L.

Reviewer/s
Kyne, P.M., Cavanagh., R.D., Francis, M. & Acuna, E. (Shark Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
Triakis maculata is a temperate large-sized triakid shark endemic to the Southeast Pacific from Peru to northern Chile and the Galapagos Islands. It is probably uncommon and very little is known of its biology. It is taken in Peru and probably also Chile together with other houndsharks (Mustelus mento, M. whitneyi and T. maculata are referred to collectively as ?tollo'). Species-specific catch information is lacking. Tollo species have been heavily fished off Peru, and to a lesser extent in Chile. The Peruvian fishery has now shifted away from tollo due to declines of the main species (M. whitneyi) and at present few are captured. The species is now also subject to minimum size restrictions, however these are low compared with size at sexual maturity and awareness of these regulations is limited, as is enforcement.

T. maculata, is assessed as Vulnerable on the basis of suspected declines resulting from intensive fishing, and presumed ongoing fishing mortality. The relative productivities of T. maculata, M. whitneyi and M. mento are unknown, so it is not possible to infer population trends of T. maculata by reference to the other two species. However triakid sharks that have been studied to date are mainly moderately fast-growing and early-maturing.

The fishery shift away from tollo may allow recovery of the stocks, but extreme caution and stringent management must be applied in the future regarding any redevelopment of a tollo fishery. An Endangered classification may be warranted but the lack of information makes this difficult to determine. The recent regulations need to be improved and adequately enforced, and obtaining species-specific information is an urgent priority. Further research and improvements in monitoring are a priority in order to accurately assess the status of this species throughout its range, and to determine the appropriate conservation and management action.
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IUCN Red List: Listed, Vulnerable

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
Possibly uncommon (Compagno in prep).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Taken in fisheries off Peru and possibly also off northern Chile. Species-specific catch information is lacking. Triakis maculata is taken in artisanal gill nets, and to a lesser extent in trawls, along with Mustelus whitneyi and M. mento. These three species are collectively known as ?tollo?, which in the geographic range of T. maculata (Peru and northern Chile), consists mainly of M. whitneyi. Tollo has been heavily fished off Peru for over 30 years, but Chilean fisheries have been less intensive. The Peruvian fishery has now shifted away from tollo due to declines of the main species (M. whitneyi) and at present few are captured. The three species are now also subject to minimum size restrictions, however these size limits are low compared with size at sexual maturity and awareness of these regulations is limited, as is enforcement. Populations trends are unknown for T. maculata, and its contribution to tollo landings is unknown; however this is probably the least common of the three species in this mix. Triakis maculata is large and desirable as food. Its naturally low abundance and ongoing fishing pressure, albeit at a lower level than previously, may be causing continuing declines in its abundance. This species should be closely monitored and given high research priority to determine the current status of its population.
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Vulnerable (VU) (A2bd)
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
In order to guarantee chondrichthyan resources in the long term, a Peruvian legal regulation was put into force in 2001, establishing minimum catch sizes of 160 cm TL for Prionace glauca, 170 cm TL for Isurus oxyrinchus, 150 cm TL for Carcharhinus spp., and 60 cm TL for Mustelus whitneyi, Mustelus mento and Triakis maculata. These species are the main commercial sharks caught off Peru. Improved awareness and education regarding these regulations is lacking and are a priority, as is adequate enforcement.

The lack of accurate species-specific information on this species not only in Peru, but elsewhere in its range reinforces the need for further research with a focus on Triakis maculata and other tollo species.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: minor commercial; price category: high; price reliability: very questionable: based on ex-vessel price for species in this family
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Wikipedia

Spotted houndshark

The spotted houndshark, Triakis maculata, is a hound shark of the family Triakidae found on the continental shelves in the eastern Pacific from the Galapagos Islands and Peru to northern Chile, between latitudes and 30° S. Its length is up to 1.8 m.

Reproduction is ovoviviparous, with about 14 pups to a litter, and size at birth 30 to 40 cm.

References

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