Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: houndshark (English), tollo (Espanol)
 
Triakis acutipinna Kato, 1968


Sharpfin houndshark



Elongate, relatively robust body;  snout short, bluntly rounded; mouth convex; eyes horizontal ovals, with ventral nictitating membranes; widely separated anterior nasal flaps do not meet mouth;  teeth semi-molar-like, with straight erect points and side points absent or poorly developed; 5 gill slits, last 2 over pectoral fin base; pectorals narrowly curved with pointed tips in adults; 2 large dorsal fins, second slightly smaller than first; first dorsal fin with vertical rear edge, centered midway between pectoral and pelvic bases; anal fin smaller than and with origin under middle of second dorsal; tail strongly asymmetrical, lower lobe with small point; fins with angular points.


Grey; no spots.

Size: 112 cm.

Habitat: continental platform.

Depth: 50-200 m.

Southern Colombia to Perú.
   
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Biology

Known only from two specimens. Ovoviviparous (Ref. 50449).
  • Compagno, L.J.V. 1984 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
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Distribution

Range Description

Southeast Pacific: found only in tropical continental waters of the Province of Manabí in Ecuador. The type locality is Isla de La Plata (01°16'-29.28'S, 81°04'-12.10'W) (Kato 1968, Compagno in prep. b), and it has also been recorded in landings of the coastal fishing port of Daniel López (21 nm from Isla de La Plata) (J. Martínez pers. comm.).
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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, East Pacific endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) endemic

Regional Endemism: All species, TEP endemic, Continental TEP endemic, Panamic province endemic, Continent, Continent only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Eastern Pacific: known only from Ecuador.
  • Compagno, L.J.V. 1984 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
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Ecuador.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 50 (G) - 200 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Size

Length max (cm): 112.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 900 mm TL
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Max. size

90.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 244)); 102 cm TL (female)
  • Compagno, L.J.V. 1984 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 2 - Carcharhiniformes. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(4/2):251-655. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 244)
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Type Information

Holotype for Triakis acutipinna Kato
Catalog Number: USNM 201409
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Preparation: Unknown
Collector(s): Fishermen
Year Collected: 1961
Locality: Isla De La Plata, acquired from fishermen., Ecuador, Pacific
Vessel: Argosy
  • Holotype: Kato, S. 1968. Copeia. 2: 320, Figs. 1, 2.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
The habitat and ecology of Triakis acutipinna is virtually unknown. Documented specimens are a 102 cm TL adult female and a 90 cm TL adult male caught inshore (Kato 1968, Compagno in prep. b). All life-history parameters are unknown.

Systems
  • Marine
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Environment

demersal; marine
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Inshore, Inshore Only

Water Column Position: Bottom, Bottom only

Habitat: Reef (rock &/or coral), Rocks, Reef and soft bottom, Soft bottom (mud, sand,gravel, beach, estuary & mangrove), Mud, Sand & gravel

FishBase Habitat: Demersal
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Trophic Strategy

Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore

Diet: mobile benthic crustacea (shrimps/crabs), bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Life Cycle

Ovoviviparous, embryos feed solely on yolk (Ref. 50449).
  • Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen 1966 Modes of reproduction in fishes. T.F.H. Publications, Neptune City, New Jersey. 941 p. (Ref. 205)
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Reproduction

Egg Type: Live birth, No pelagic larva
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
B1ab(v); C2a(ii)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2009

Assessor/s
Compagno, L.J.V., Kyne, P.M. & Domingo, A.

Reviewer/s
Valenti, S.V & Fowler, S.L. (Shark Red List Authority)

Contributor/s

Justification
The Sharpfin Houndshark (Triakis acutipinna) is an extremely rare shark, known only from a limited region of inshore continental Ecuador (the Province of Manabí). It is poorly known, and its exact distribution is uncertain. Since it was originally described from Isla de la Plata 40 years ago, the only other known records are rare landings from coastal gillnet fisheries in the nearby coastal fishing port of Daniel López (less than 39 km from Isla de la Plata). Its entire known extent of occurrence, as with the majority of the Ecudorian coastline, is subjected to effectively unregulated small-scale artisanal fisheries. These fisheries land various species of shark, and in some cases they target sharks (including houndsharks). A reduction in landings in small-scale coastal fisheries has been noted in recent years. It is unknown if the species is also taken in other inshore artisanal fisheries. Despite the lack of catch statistics and specimens of the species, the Sharpfin Houndshark's estimated extent of occurrence is considerably less than 5,000 km², as presently known. The population size is considered to be less than 2,500 individuals on the basis of very few records within a restricted area (with no evidence for genetically or geographically distinct populations), and a continuing decline in the number of mature individuals is suspected on the basis of continued unregulated exploitation throughout its known range. An assessment of catches and sampling of inshore fisheries should be a priority, to determine its exact extent of occurrence. If such sampling expands the species' known distribution, then this assessment would need to be revisited.

History
  • 2000
    Vulnerable
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IUCN Red List: Listed, Vulnerable

CITES: Not listed
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Population

Population
Unknown.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Throughout Ecuador, several (mainly artisanal) fisheries land various species of carcharhinoid sharks (including houndsharks) as bycatch. In some cases, small-scale fishing communities have specifically targeted sharks, however target fisheries for sharks were prohibited in 2004 (see Conservation Measures). Catch statistics are limited, with inadequate monitoring of fishing activities and landings. Bostock and Herdson (1985) estimated that in the early 1980s small-scale fishers landed some 1,800-2,000 t of sharks per year. Later catch estimates from only a subset of landing ports amounted to ~4,000 t/year for 1993-1995. Martínez (1999) noticed a reduction in shark landings in small-scale coastal fisheries in more recent years when compared with those of the early 1980s.

The sharpfin houndshark is rarely landed in coastal monofilament gillnet artisanal fisheries in the fishing port of Daniel López in Manabí, Ecuador (J. Martínez pers. comm.). It is unknown if the species is taken in other inshore artisanal fisheries.
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Endangered (EN) (B1ab(v); C2a(ii))
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
There is little effective management of inshore fishing activities in continental Ecuador. Specific management regulations have been lacking, but the recent development of a shark plan and recently introduced measures should lead to improvements. Decree 2130 banned target fisheries and fin trade in 2004, but implementation and enforcement was insufficient and fins continued to be exported illegally. Subsequently, Decree 486 permitted trade in fins from bycatch, mandated the full utilisation of all shark meat, and required monitoring of all bycatch and a licensing system for the trade of fins. This decree provided an important means of monitoring shark catches.

Field surveys are required to accurately document the species' distribution and habitat requirements. An assessment of what fisheries are catching the species and where it is being landed is also required. The sharpfin houndshark, along with other inshore elasmobranch species, would then benefit from effective regulation of these fisheries. However, given the rarity of this species, along with its occurrence in exploited inshore waters, it likely requires more immediate conservation actions, i.e. full protection.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest
  • Coppola, S.R., W. Fischer, L. Garibaldi, N. Scialabba and K.E. Carpenter 1994 SPECIESDAB: Global species database for fishery purposes. User's manual. FAO Computerized Information Series (Fisheries). No. 9. Rome, FAO. 103 p. (Ref. 171)
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Wikipedia

Sharpfin houndshark

The sharpfin houndshark, Triakis acutipinna, is a houndshark of the family Triakidae. Only two specimens have been found, both in the coastal waters of Ecuador, the longest one being 1.02 meters in length. The reproduction of this houndshark is ovoviviparous.

References[edit]

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