Overview

Brief Summary

Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a slender perennial herb (30 to 100 cm tall) that is usually grown as an annual. Ginger reproduces exclusively asexually and flowers are seldom seen on culinary Ginger plants. Ginger originated in Southeast Asia, but it is not known in the wild.

The underground tuberous stem or rhizome constitutes the spice. It has been used as a spice and medicine in India and China since ancient times, was known to the Greeks and Romans, and was generally known throughout Europe by the tenth century. Today, Ginger is grown in most tropical countries, with major producers including India, China, Indonesia, Nepal, Nigeria, and Thailand (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization's FAOSTAT website, 2010 data). It is propagated from pieces of rhizome. After 5 to 7 months, the new young rhizomes are dug up manually or by mechanical means and are preserved in sugar syrup or used for crystallized ginger. The older rhizomes (harvested after 8 to 10 months) become dried ginger, which is used in baking, in beverages, and in a wide range of other culinary applications around the world. Oleoresin and essential oil are also produced from ginger.

(Vaughan and Geissler 1997)

  • Vaughan, J.G. and C.A. Geissler. 1997. The New Oxford Book of Food Plants (revised and updated edition). Oxford University Press, New York.
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Comprehensive Description

Brief

Flowering class: Monocot Habit: Herb
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Distribution

"
Global Distribution

Cultivated in Tropical countries

Indian distribution

State - Kerala, District/s: All Districts

"
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Up to 1.3 m. Leaves sessile, up to c. 15 x 2(3) cm, linear-lanceolate, glabrous. Inflorescence on an up to 25 cm erect peduncle. Bracts green with a paler margin. Flowers yellow with a purple, yellow-spotted labellum; anther dark purple.
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Description

Rhizomes branched, yellowish inside, thickened, fleshy, strongly aromatic. Pseudostems 50--100 cm. Leaves sessile; ligule slightly 2-lobed, 2--4 mm, membranous; leaf blade lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 15--30 × 2--2.5 cm, glabrescent. Inflorescences arising from rhizomes, ovoid, 4--5 × ca. 1.5 cm; peduncle to 25 cm; bracts pale green, sometimes yellowish at margin, ovate, ca. 2.5 cm, apex mucronate; bracteoles equaling bracts. Calyx ca. 1 cm. Corolla yellowish green; tube 2--2.5 cm; lobes lanceolate, ca. 1.8 cm. Central lobe of labellum with purple stripe and cream blotches, oblong-obovate, shorter than corolla lobes; lateral lobes ovate, ca. 6 mm, free nearly to base. Stamen dark purple; anther ca. 9 mm; connective appendage curved, ca. 7 mm. Fl. Oct. 2 n = 22*.
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Diagnostic Description

Diagnostic

"Rhizomatous herbs; rhizome thick, dull yellow. Leafy stem to 60 cm high. Leaves to 25 x 2 cm, elliptic-oblong, acuminate. Peduncles to 30 cm long, erect; spike 3-5 x 3 cm, obovoid; bracts 2.5 x 2 cm, obovate, green. Flowers few; calyx 2 cm long; corolla white, tube small; labellum 3 x 2.5 cm, white, obovate."
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Synonym

Amomum zingiber Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 1. 1753; Zingiber sichuanense Z. Y. Zhu et al.
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Ecology

Habitat

General Habitat

Widely cultivated
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Habitat & Distribution

Cultivated. Anhui, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hainan, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Shaanxi, Shandong, Sichuan, Taiwan, Yunnan, Zhejiang [native origin unknown; widely cultivated in the tropics and subtropics].
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Life History and Behavior

Cyclicity

Flowering and fruiting: September-December
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Chemistry

Extract shows cardiotonic activity.

  • Abraham, E.A.V. 1912. Materia Medica Guian. Britt. Timehri, ser. 3, 2: 179-196.
  • Grenand, P., Moretti, C. and H. Jacquemin. 1987. Pharmacopées Traditionnelles en Guyane: Créoles, Palikur, Wayapi. 569 pp. Paris: Editions de l'ORSTOM.
  • Heckel, E. 1897. Les Plantes Médicinales et Toxiques de la Guyane Francaise. 93 pp. Macon, France: Protat Freres.
  • Heyde, H. 1987. Surinaamse Medicijnplanten. Ed. 2. 112 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Westfort. (Followed by: Heyde, H. 1990. Medecijn Planten in Suriname (Den Dresi Wiwiri foe Sranan). 157 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Stichting Gezondheidsplanten Informatie).
  • Lachman-White, D.A., Adams, C.D. and U.O. Trotz. 1987. A Guide to the Medicinal Plants of Coastal Guyana. 350 pp. London: Commonwealth Science Council.
  • May, A.F. 1982. Surinaams Kruidenboek (Sranan Oso Dresi). 80 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Vaco; and Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.
  • Ostendorf, F.W. 1962. Nuttige Planten en Sierplanten in Suriname. 324 pp. Landbouwproefstation in Suriname, Bulletin No. 79.
  • Tiwari, S. 1999. Ethnomedicine of the Patamona Indians of Guyana. 560 pp. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bronx, New York: City University of New York (Lehman College).
  • Von Reis, S. and F.J. Lipp. 1982. New Plant Sources for Drugs and Foods from the New York Botanical Garden Herbarium. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  • van Andel, T. R. 2000. Non-timber Forest Products of the North-West District of Guyana. Part I: 326 pp., Part II: A Field Guide, 358 pp. Tropenbos-Guyana Series 8B. Georgetown, Guyana: Tropenbos-Guyana Programme.

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Barcode data: Zingiber officinale

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Zingiber officinale

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Whole plant: Guyana Waiwai use the boiled plant as a fever wash. Boiled with Aframomum melegueta seeds and used to treat colds and fever. In a decoction with flowers of Senna alata for grippe and as an abortifacient. Boiled with leaves of Cymbopogon citratus and Bambusa vulgaris and the liquid consumed to treat fever and ague. Boiled in a decoction with the fruit of Justicia secunda and Piper nigrum for a remedy to menstrual pains. A preparation containing ginger, known as "fiery-jack ointment", is made in Guyana. Root: Used to treat hemorrhage and malaria in NW Guyana.

Rhizome: French Guiana Palikur use it in a plaster to relieve headaches; digestive; rubbed on rheumatic areas; sudorific. In Surinam, the rhizome is mixed with other spices for asthma, cramps and stomachache. Rhizome is boiled and the water used as an anti-pyretic, by the Guyana Patamona. Rhizome is used for making beverages or for flavoring food, by the Guyana Patamona. Rhizome is grated, mixed with water, and dropped in the nostrils for treating colds or dropped into the eyes for curing migraine headaches, by the Guyana Patamona. Rhizome and Leaf: In a decoction with parched seeds and leaves of Jatropha curcas for use in treating menstrual pains.

  • Abraham, E.A.V. 1912. Materia Medica Guian. Britt. Timehri, ser. 3, 2: 179-196.
  • Grenand, P., Moretti, C. and H. Jacquemin. 1987. Pharmacopées Traditionnelles en Guyane: Créoles, Palikur, Wayapi. 569 pp. Paris: Editions de l'ORSTOM.
  • Heckel, E. 1897. Les Plantes Médicinales et Toxiques de la Guyane Francaise. 93 pp. Macon, France: Protat Freres.
  • Heyde, H. 1987. Surinaamse Medicijnplanten. Ed. 2. 112 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Westfort. (Followed by: Heyde, H. 1990. Medecijn Planten in Suriname (Den Dresi Wiwiri foe Sranan). 157 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Stichting Gezondheidsplanten Informatie).
  • Lachman-White, D.A., Adams, C.D. and U.O. Trotz. 1987. A Guide to the Medicinal Plants of Coastal Guyana. 350 pp. London: Commonwealth Science Council.
  • May, A.F. 1982. Surinaams Kruidenboek (Sranan Oso Dresi). 80 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Vaco; and Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.
  • Ostendorf, F.W. 1962. Nuttige Planten en Sierplanten in Suriname. 324 pp. Landbouwproefstation in Suriname, Bulletin No. 79.
  • Tiwari, S. 1999. Ethnomedicine of the Patamona Indians of Guyana. 560 pp. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bronx, New York: City University of New York (Lehman College).
  • Von Reis, S. and F.J. Lipp. 1982. New Plant Sources for Drugs and Foods from the New York Botanical Garden Herbarium. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  • van Andel, T. R. 2000. Non-timber Forest Products of the North-West District of Guyana. Part I: 326 pp., Part II: A Field Guide, 358 pp. Tropenbos-Guyana Series 8B. Georgetown, Guyana: Tropenbos-Guyana Programme.

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Uses

Medicinal
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Wikipedia

Ginger

Ginger

Ginger is the rhizome of the plant Zingiber officinale, consumed whole as a delicacy, medicine, or spice. It lends its name to its genus and family (Zingiberaceae). Other notable members of this plant family are turmeric, cardamom, and galangal.

Ginger cultivation began in South Asia and has since spread to East Africa and the Caribbean.[2] It is sometimes called root ginger to distinguish it from other things that share the name ginger.

Contents

Etymology

The English name ginger comes from French: gingembre, Old English: gingifere, Medieval Latin: ginginer, Greek: zingiberis (ζιγγίβερις), Old Persian: shingavir (شنگویر), Pali: siṅgivera (सिन्गिभेर ).

Ultimately the origin is from Tamil: inji ver (இஞ்சி வேர்). The botanical term for root in Tamil is ver (வேர்), hence inji root or inji ver.[3]

Chemistry

Ginger section

The characteristic odor and flavor of ginger is caused by a mixture of zingerone, shogaols and gingerols, volatile oils that compose one to three percent of the weight of fresh ginger. In laboratory animals, the gingerrols increase the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and have analgesic, sedative, antipyretic and antibacterial properties.[4] Ginger oil has been shown to prevent skin cancer in mice[5] and a study at the University of Michigan demonstrated that gingerols can kill ovarian cancer cells.[6][7][8] [6]-gingerol (1-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl]-5-hydroxy-3-decanone) is the major pungent principle of ginger. The chemopreventive potentials of [6]-gingerol present a promising future alternative to expensive and toxic therapeutic agents.[9]

Ginger contains up to three percent of a fragrant essential oil whose main constituents are sesquiterpenoids, with (-)-zingiberene as the main component. Smaller amounts of other sesquiterpenoids (β-sesquiphellandrene, bisabolene and farnesene) and a small monoterpenoid fraction (β-phelladrene, cineol, and citral) have also been identified.

The pungent taste of ginger is due to nonvolatile phenylpropanoid-derived compounds, particularly gingerols and shogaols, which form from gingerols when ginger is dried or cooked. Zingerone is also produced from gingerols during this process; this compound is less pungent and has a spicy-sweet aroma.[10] Ginger is also a minor chemical irritant, and because of this was used as a horse suppository by pre-World War I mounted regiments for feaguing.

Ginger has a sialagogue action, stimulating the production of saliva, which makes swallowing easier.

Uses

Culinary use

Fresh ginger rhizome.

Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. They can also be steeped in boiling water to make ginger tea, to which honey is often added; sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. Ginger can also be made into candy.

Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent,[citation needed] and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes, and is a quintessential ingredient of Chinese, Japanese and many South Asian cuisines for flavoring dishes such as seafood or goat meat and vegetarian cuisine.

Ginger acts as a useful food preservative.[11]

Fresh ginger can be substituted for ground ginger at a ratio of 6 to 1, although the flavors of fresh and dried ginger are somewhat different. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread, cookies, crackers and cakes, ginger ale, and ginger beer.

Candied ginger is the root cooked in sugar until soft, and is a type of confectionery.

Fresh ginger may be peeled before eating. For longer-term storage, the ginger can be placed in a plastic bag and refrigerated or frozen.

Regional use

In India, ginger is called Adrak in Hindi, Punjabi and Urdu,Aad in Maithili, Aadi in Bhojpuri, Aada in Bengali, Adu in Gujarati, Hashi Shunti in the Kannada , Allam (అల్లం) in Telugu, Inji (இஞ்சி) in Tamil and Malayalam, Inguru (ඉඟුරු) in Sinhalese, Alay in Marathi, and Aduwa(अदुवा ) in Nepali. Fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. Fresh, as well as dried, ginger is used to spice tea and coffee, especially in winter. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations, particularly for pregnant or nursing women, the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin, ghee, nuts, and sugar. Ginger is also consumed in candied and pickled form.

In Bangladesh, ginger is called Aada (আদা) and is finely chopped or ground into a paste to use as a base for chicken and meat dishes alongside shallot and garlic.

In the Philippines, ginger is called luya and is used as "candy" when there is sore throat or hoarse voice.

In Burma, ginger is called gyin. It is widely used in cooking and as a main ingredient in traditional medicines. It is also consumed as a salad dish called gyin-thot, which consists of shredded ginger preserved in oil, and a variety of nuts and seeds.

In Indonesia, a beverage called wedang jahe is made from ginger and palm sugar. Indonesians also use ground ginger root, called jahe, as a common ingredient in local recipes.

In Nepal, ginger is called "aduwa", अदुवा and is widely grown and used throughout the country as a spice for vegetables, used medically to treat cold and also sometimes used to flavor tea.

In Vietnam, the fresh leaves, finely chopped, can also be added to shrimp-and-yam soup (canh khoai mỡ) as a top garnish and spice to add a much subtler flavor of ginger than the chopped root.

Two varieties of ginger as sold in Haikou, Hainan, China

In China, sliced or whole ginger root is often paired with savory dishes such as fish, and chopped ginger root is commonly paired with meat, when it is cooked. However, candied ginger is sometimes a component of Chinese candy boxes, and a herbal tea can also be prepared from ginger.

In Japan, ginger is pickled to make beni shoga and gari or grated and used raw on tofu or noodles. It is also made into a candy called shoga no satozuke.

In the traditional Korean kimchi, ginger is finely minced and added to the ingredients of the spicy paste just before the fermenting process.

In Western cuisine, ginger is traditionally used mainly in sweet foods such as ginger ale, gingerbread, ginger snaps, parkin, ginger biscuits and speculaas. A ginger-flavored liqueur called Canton is produced in Jarnac, France. Green ginger wine is a ginger-flavored wine produced in the United Kingdom, traditionally sold in a green glass bottle. Ginger is also used as a spice added to hot coffee and tea.

In the Caribbean, ginger is a popular spice for cooking, and making drinks such as sorrel, a seasonal drink made during the Christmas season. Jamaicans make ginger beer both as a carbonated beverage and also fresh in their homes. Ginger tea is often made from fresh ginger, as well as the famous regional specialty Jamaican ginger cake.

On the island of Corfu, Greece, a traditional drink called τσιτσιμπύρα (tsitsibira), a type of ginger beer, is made. The people of Corfu and the rest of the Ionian islands adopted the drink from the British, during the period of the United States of the Ionian Islands.

In Arabic, ginger is called zanjabil, and in some parts of the Middle East, ginger powder is used as a spice for coffee and for milk, as well. In Somaliland, ginger is called sinjibil, and is served in coffee shops in Egypt.

In the Ivory Coast, ginger is ground and mixed with orange, pineapple and lemon to produce a juice called nyamanku.

Ginger powder is used in hawaij, a spice mixture used mostly by Yemenite Jews for soups and coffee.

Medicinal use

The medical form of ginger historically was called Jamaica ginger; it was classified as a stimulant and carminative and used frequently for dyspepsia, gastroparesis, slow motility symptoms, constipation, and colic. It was also frequently employed to disguise the taste of medicines. Ginger is on the FDA's "generally recognized as safe" list, though it does interact with some medications, including warfarin. Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile.[12] Ginger may also decrease pain from arthritis, though studies have been inconsistent, and may have blood thinning and cholesterol lowering properties that may make it useful for treating heart disease.[13] An acute overdose of ginger is usually in excess of about 2,000 milligrams per kilogram[14], dependent on level of ginger tolerance, and can result in a state of central nervous system over-stimulation called ginger intoxication or colloquially the "ginger gitters".

Animal studies suggest that ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) reduces anxiety.[15]

Advanced glycation end products are associated in the development of several pathophysiologies including diabetic cataract. Ginger was effective against the development of diabetic cataract in rats mainly through its antiglycating potential and to a lesser extent by inhibition of the polyol pathway. Ginger, may be explored for the prevention or delay of diabetic complications[16]

Diarrhea

Ginger compounds are active against a form of diarrhea which is the leading cause of infant death in developing countries. Zingerone is likely to be the active constituent against enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin-induced diarrhea.[17]

Nausea

Ginger has been found effective in multiple studies for treating nausea caused by seasickness, morning sickness and chemotherapy,[18] though ginger was not found superior over a placebo for pre-emptively treating post-operative nausea. Ginger is a safe remedy for nausea relief during pregnancy.[19] Ginger as a remedy for motion sickness is still a debated issue. The television program Mythbusters performed an experiment using one of their staff who suffered from severe motion sickness. The staff member was placed in a moving device which, without treatment, produced severe nausea. Multiple treatments were administered. None, with the exception of the ginger and the two most common drugs, were successful. The staff member preferred the ginger due to lack of side effects. Several studies over the last 20 years were inconclusive with some studies in favor of the herb and some not.[20][21] A common thread in these studies is the lack of sufficient participants to yield statistical significance. Another issue is the lack of a known chemical pathway for the supposed relief.

Folk medicine

A variety of uses are suggested for ginger. Tea brewed from ginger is a folk remedy for colds. Three to four leaves of tulsi taken with a piece of ginger on an empty stomach is considered an effective cure for congestion, cough and cold.[citation needed] Ginger ale and ginger beer have been recommended as stomach settlers for generations in countries where the beverages are made, and ginger water was commonly used to avoid heat cramps in the United States. In China, "ginger eggs" (scrambled eggs with finely diced ginger root) is a common home remedy for coughing.[citation needed] The Chinese also make a kind of dried ginger candy that is fermented in plum juice and sugared, which is also commonly consumed to suppress coughing. Ginger has also been historically used to treat inflammation, which several scientific studies support, though one arthritis trial showed ginger to be no better than a placebo or ibuprofen for treatment of osteoarthritis.[13] Research on rats suggests that ginger may be useful for treating diabetes.[22][23]

Regional medicinal use
A packet of ginger powder from the Philippines used in brewing "salabat".

In the West, powdered dried ginger root is made into capsules and sold in pharmacies for medicinal use.

  • In Burma, ginger and a local sweetener made from palm tree juice (htan nyat) are boiled together and taken to prevent the flu.
  • In China, ginger is included in several traditional preparations. A drink made with sliced ginger cooked in water with brown sugar or a cola is used as a folk medicine for the common cold.[24]
  • In Congo, ginger is crushed and mixed with mango tree sap to make tangawisi juice, which is considered a panacea.
  • In India, ginger is applied as a paste to the temples to relieve headache, and consumed when suffering from the common cold. Ginger with lemon and black salt is also used for nausea.
  • In Indonesia, ginger ("jahe" in Indonesian) is used as a herbal preparation to reduce fatigue, reducing "winds" in the blood, prevent and cure rheumatism and control poor dietary habits.
  • In the Philippines a traditional health drink called "salabat" is made for breakfast by boiling chopped ginger and adding sugar; it is considered good for a sore throat.
  • In the United States, ginger is used to prevent motion and morning sickness. It is recognized as safe by the Food and Drug Administration and is sold as an unregulated dietary supplement.
  • In Peru, ginger is sliced in hot water as an infusion for stomach aches as "infusión de Kión"

Reactions

Allergic reactions to ginger generally result in a rash, and although generally recognized as safe, ginger can cause heartburn, bloating, gas, belching and nausea, particularly if taken in powdered form. Unchewed fresh ginger may result in intestinal blockage, and individuals who have had ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease or blocked intestines may react badly to large quantities of fresh ginger.[25] Ginger can also adversely affect individuals with gallstones.[13][25] There are also suggestions that ginger may affect blood pressure, clotting, and heart rhythms.[25]

Horticulture

Ginger field

Ginger produces clusters of white and pink flower buds that bloom into yellow flowers. Because of its aesthetic appeal and the adaptation of the plant to warm climates, ginger is often used as landscaping around subtropical homes. It is a perennial reed-like plant with annual leafy stems, about a meter (3 to 4 feet) tall.

Traditionally, the root is gathered when the stalk withers; it is immediately scalded, or washed and scraped, to kill it and prevent sprouting.

Production trends

Ginger output in 2005

India, with over 30% of the global share, now leads in global production of ginger, replacing China, which has slipped to the second position (~20.5%), followed by Indonesia (~12.7%), Nepal (~11.5%) and Nigeria (~10%).

Top ten ginger producers — 11 June 2008
CountryProduction (tonnes)Footnote
 India420,000F
 China285,000F
 Indonesia177,000F
 Nepal158,905
 Nigeria138,000F
 Bangladesh57,000F
 Japan42,000F
 Thailand34,000F
 Philippines28,000F
 Sri Lanka8,270
 World1,387,445A
No symbol = official figure, F = FAO estimate, A = Aggregate (may include official, semi-official or estimates);

Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division


Similar species

Myoga (Zingiber mioga Roscoe) appears in Japanese cuisine; the flower buds are the part eaten.

Another plant in the Zingiberaceae family, galangal, is used for similar purposes as ginger in Thai cuisine. Galangal is also called Thai ginger. Also referred to as galangal, fingerroot (Boesenbergia rotunda), or Chinese ginger or the Thai krachai, is used in cooking and medicine.

A dicotyledonous native species of eastern North America, Asarum canadense, is also known as "wild ginger", and its root has similar aromatic properties, but it is not related to true ginger. The plant also contains aristolochic acid, a carcinogenic compound.

Jerusalem artichoke also shares similar appearance with ginger root.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Zingiber officinale information from NPGS/GRIN". www.ars-grin.gov. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?42254. Retrieved 2008-03-03. 
  2. ^ http://unitproj.library.ucla.edu/biomed/spice/index.cfm?displayID=15 "Spices:  Exotic Flavors & Medicines:  Ginger"].  http://unitproj.library.ucla.edu/biomed/spice/index.cfm?displayID=15. Retrieved 2007-08-08. 
  3. ^ "ginger". Online Etymology Dictionary, http://www.etymonline.com/. http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=ginger. Retrieved January 22, 2011. 
  4. ^ MD O' Hara, Mary; & MSt; David Kiefer, MD; Kim Farrell, MD; Kathi Kemper, MD, MPH (1998). "A Review of 12 Commonly Used Medicinal Herbs". Archives of Family Medicine 7 (7): 523–536. doi:10.1001/archfami.7.6.523. PMID 9821826. http://archfami.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/7/6/523. Retrieved 2007-08-06. 
  5. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper.com
  6. ^ Ginger inhibits cell growth and modulates angiogenic factors in ovarian cancer cells. Rhode J. Fogoros S. Zick S. Wahl H. Griffith KA. Huang J. Liu JR. BMC Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 7:44, 2007
  7. ^ Cytotoxic components from the dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Kim JS. Lee SI. Park HW. Yang JH. Shin TY. Kim YC. Baek NI. Kim SH. Choi SU. Kwon BM. Leem KH. Jung MY. Kim DK. Archives of Pharmacal Research. 31(4):415-8, 2008 Apr
  8. ^ Aqueous extract of ginger shows antiproliferative activity through disruption of microtubule network of cancer cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2010 Oct;48(10):2872-80 Authors: Choudhury D, Das A, Bhattacharya A, Chakrabarti G
  9. ^ Molecular targets of [6]-gingerol: Its potential roles in cancer chemoprevention. Oyagbemi AA. Saba AB. Azeez OI. Biofactors. 36(3):169-78, 2010 May-Jun.
  10. ^ McGee, Harold (2004). On Food and Cooking: The Science and Lore of the Kitchen (2nd ed.). New York: Scribner pp. 425-426.
  11. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root out Ailments with this Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper.com
  12. ^ Al-Achi, Antoine. "A Current Look at Ginger Use". http://www.uspharmacist.com/oldformat.asp?url=newlook/files/Comp/ginger2.htm&pub_id=8&article_id=772. Retrieved 2007-08-02. [dead link]
  13. ^ a b c University of Maryland Medical Centre (2006). "Ginger". http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/ginger-000246.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
  14. ^ MDidea Extracts Professional (2010). "Dosage and Administration of Ginger". http://www.mdidea.com/products/new/new02108.html. Retrieved 2010-10-03. 
  15. ^ dentification of serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonists in ginger. Nievergelt A. Huonker P. Schoop R. Altmann KH. Gertsch J. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 18(9):3345-51, 2010 May 1
  16. ^ Antiglycating potential of Zingiber officinalis and delay of diabetic cataract in rats. Saraswat M. Suryanarayana P. Reddy PY. Patil MA. Balakrishna N. Reddy GB. Molecular Vision. 16:1525-37, 2010.
  17. ^ Chen, Jaw-Chyun; Li-Jiau Huang, Shih-Lu Wu, Sheng-Chu Kuo, Tin-Yun Ho, Chien-Yun Hsiang (2007). "Ginger and Its Bioactive Component Inhibit Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin-Induced Diarrhoea in Mice". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55 (21): 8390–8397. doi:10.1021/jf071460f. PMID 17880155. 
  18. ^ Ernst, E.; & Pittler, M.H. (1 March 2000). "Efficacy of ginger for nausea and vomiting: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials" (PDF). British Journal of Anesthesia 84 (3): 367–371. PMID 10793599. http://bja.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/84/3/367. Retrieved 2006-09-06. 
  19. ^ Glorious Ginger: Root Out Ailments with This Ancient Spice published by thefoodpaper.com
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  23. ^ Afshari, Ali Taghizadeh et al.; Shirpoor, A; Farshid, A; Saadatian, R; Rasmi, Y; Saboory, E; Ilkhanizadeh, B; Allameh, A (2007). "The effect of ginger on diabetic nephropathy, plasma antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation in rats". Food Chemistry (Elsevier) 101 (1): 148–153. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.01.013. 
  24. ^ Jakes, Susan (2007-01-15). "Beverage of Champions". Times on-line. Archived from the original on July 1, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070701192939/http://time-blog.com/china_blog/2007/01/the_beverage_of_champions_1.html. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
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This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia.
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Common Names

French Guiana: gingembre. FG Palikur: isuu. Guyana: ginger. Surinam: gember, gindja. Surinam Javan: djahe. Guyan Patamona: mu-sah-yik, cu-sa-laa-yik.

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  • Grenand, P., Moretti, C. and H. Jacquemin. 1987. Pharmacopées Traditionnelles en Guyane: Créoles, Palikur, Wayapi. 569 pp. Paris: Editions de l'ORSTOM.
  • Heckel, E. 1897. Les Plantes Médicinales et Toxiques de la Guyane Francaise. 93 pp. Macon, France: Protat Freres.
  • Heyde, H. 1987. Surinaamse Medicijnplanten. Ed. 2. 112 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Westfort. (Followed by: Heyde, H. 1990. Medecijn Planten in Suriname (Den Dresi Wiwiri foe Sranan). 157 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Stichting Gezondheidsplanten Informatie).
  • Lachman-White, D.A., Adams, C.D. and U.O. Trotz. 1987. A Guide to the Medicinal Plants of Coastal Guyana. 350 pp. London: Commonwealth Science Council.
  • May, A.F. 1982. Surinaams Kruidenboek (Sranan Oso Dresi). 80 pp. Paramaribo, Surinam: Vaco; and Zutphen, The Netherlands: De Walburg Pers.
  • Ostendorf, F.W. 1962. Nuttige Planten en Sierplanten in Suriname. 324 pp. Landbouwproefstation in Suriname, Bulletin No. 79.
  • Tiwari, S. 1999. Ethnomedicine of the Patamona Indians of Guyana. 560 pp. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bronx, New York: City University of New York (Lehman College).
  • Von Reis, S. and F.J. Lipp. 1982. New Plant Sources for Drugs and Foods from the New York Botanical Garden Herbarium. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
  • van Andel, T. R. 2000. Non-timber Forest Products of the North-West District of Guyana. Part I: 326 pp., Part II: A Field Guide, 358 pp. Tropenbos-Guyana Series 8B. Georgetown, Guyana: Tropenbos-Guyana Programme.

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Zingiber officinale, the root ginger of commerce, is cultivated in the Hazara region m Haripur and Tret. Also cultivated in the Sind and Punjab Plains. It is always propagated by rhizomes. The rhizomes are dug up while the plant is in the vegetative state and thus it rarely flowers.
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Widely cultivated for medicine and spice.
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