Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Adults inhabit clean, clear gravel riffles and runs of small rivers. Ammocoetes occur in quiet water over sand, silt and debris. Non-parasitic, the adults and possibly the larger ammocoetes in the resting stage do not feed (Ref. 1998).
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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Range extends from the St. Lawrence River, Quebec, west through Great Lakes and northern Mississippi River basins to Red River (Hudson Bay basin), southern Manitoba; localized in Ohio River basin from northwestern Pennsylvania to eastern Kentucky; Missouri River basin, Ozark Uplands, Missouri (Pflieger 1997, Page and Burr 2011)

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Range Description

Range extends from the St. Lawrence River, Quebec, west through Great Lakes and northern Mississippi River basins to Red River (Hudson Bay basin), southern Manitoba; localized in Ohio River basin from northwestern Pennsylvania to eastern Kentucky; Missouri River basin, Ozark Uplands, Missouri (Pflieger 1997, Page and Burr 2011)
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North America: St. Lawrence River, Quebec, west through Great Lakes and northern Mississippi River basin to Red River (Hudson Bay basin), south Manitoba; localized in Ohio River basin of northwest Pennsylvania, west Virginia, east Kentucky, north and south central Ohio and north Indiana; Missouri River basin.
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North America.
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Physical Description

Size

Length: 16 cm

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Maximum size: 170 mm TL
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Max. size

17.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 5723)); max. reported age: 6 years (Ref. 72462)
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat Type: Freshwater

Comments: Habitat includes clean, clear gravel riffles and runs of small rivers (Page and Burr 2011); this species usually does not occur in large rivers or small brooks. Usually it occurs over gravel or sand-silt bottoms in moderately warm water, generally unsuitable for brook trout (Becker 1983). Larvae burrow into sand-silt bottoms in eddies. Spawning occurs in coarse gravelly or stony bottoms of creeks or small rivers in areas of strong current.

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Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Habitat includes clean, clear gravel riffles and runs of small rivers (Page and Burr 2011); this species usually does not occur in large rivers or small brooks. Usually it occurs over gravel or sand-silt bottoms in moderately warm water, generally unsuitable for brook trout (Becker 1983). Larvae burrow into sand-silt bottoms in eddies. Spawning occurs in coarse gravelly or stony bottoms of creeks or small rivers in areas of strong current.

Systems
  • Freshwater
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Environment

demersal; freshwater
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Depth range based on 3 specimens in 1 taxon.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0.2 - 1

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0.2 - 1
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Adults and possibly the larger larvae do not feed. Larvae filter feed on microscopic organisms (diatoms, algae, etc.).

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Adults inhabit clean, clear gravel riffles and runs of small rivers. Ammocoetes occur in quiet water over sand, silt and debris. Non-parasitic, the adults and possibly the larger ammocoetes in the resting stage do not feed (Ref. 1998). Ammocoetes feed on diatoms, protozoans, green algae, detritus, and pollen. The intestine is nonfunctional (Ref. 1998).
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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 21 - 300

Comments: This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations). Becker (1983) mapped several dozen collection sites in Wisconsin, representing probably a few dozen distinct occurrences; he stated that the species is probably more widely distributed than present records indicate. Pflieger (1997) mapped 18 collection sites (1945-1995) in three well-isolated river systems in Missouri; he stated that due to identification problems with larvae, the species may be more widely distributed that available records suggest. Burr and Warren (1986) mapped 18 collection sites in several drainages Kentucky; these represent probably about a dozen distinct occurrences, but the species was rated as threatened there. Smith (1979) mapped three collection sites in Illinois all in one river.

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Global Abundance

10,000 - 1,000,000 individuals

Comments: Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. Rage-wide, this species is locally common (Page and Burr 2011); occasional and uncommon in Kentucky (Burr and Warren 1986); common in at least two river systems in Wisconsin (Becker 1983).

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Spawns in late spring. Eggs hatch in about 12 days. Larval stage lasts about 3-6 years. Metamorphosis occurs in late summer. Adults overwinter, spawn the following spring, die after undetermined time thereafter (Becker 1983).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Ichthyomyzon fossor

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 16 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CCTATATTTAATTTTTGGGGCCTGAGCAGGAATAGTAGGAACCGCTTTAAGCATCCTAATTCGAGCAGAACTAAGTCAACCAGGCACTTTACTAGGAGACGACCAAATTTTTAATGTTATCGTAACCGCCCATGCTTTCGTCATAATCTTTTTCATAGTTATACCAATCATAATTGGAGGCTTTGGTAACTGACTTGTGCCACTAATACTAAGCGCCCCAGATATGGCCTTCCCACGTATAAACAACATAAGCTTTTGATTACTTCCACCATCATTACTTCTACTTTTAGCCTCCGCAGGAGTTGAAGCTGGGGCAGGAACAGGATGAACTGTATATCCCCCATTAGCCGGAAATTTAGCTCATACAGGAGCATCTATTGACTTAACAATCTTCTCCCTTCACCTCGCTGGAATTTCATCAATTTTAGGAGCAATTAATTTTATCACAACTATTTTTAATATAAAACCCCCAACTATAACTCAATATCAAACTCCTTTATTTGTTTGATCCGTCCTAATTACTGCAGTCCTTCTCCTATTATCTCTACCAGTACTGGCAGCCGCTATCACAATACTCCTTACAGATCGTAACTTAAATACATCCTTCTTTGACCCTGCGGGGGGAGGAGACCCCATTCTATACCAACACCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ichthyomyzon fossor

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 16
Specimens with Barcodes: 16
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N3 - Vulnerable

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Environmental Specificity: Narrow. Specialist or community with key requirements common.

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
NatureServe

Reviewer/s
Smith, K. & Darwall, W.R.T.

Contributor/s

Justification
Listed as Least Concern in view of the large extent of occurrence, large number of subpopulations and locations, and probable large population size, and because the species probably is not declining fast enough to qualify for any of the threatened categories.
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Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable to decline of 30%

Comments: Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but probably relatively stable or slowly declining.

Global Long Term Trend: Decline of 50-70%

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Population

Population
This species is represented by a large number of occurrences (subpopulations). Becker (1983) mapped several dozen collection sites in Wisconsin, representing probably a few dozen distinct occurrences; he stated that the species is probably more widely distributed than present records indicate. Pflieger (1997) mapped 18 collection sites (1945-1995) in three well-isolated river systems in Missouri; he stated that due to identification problems with larvae, the species may be more widely distributed that available records suggest. Burr and Warren (1986) mapped 18 collection sites in several drainages Kentucky; these represent probably about a dozen distinct occurrences, but the species was rated as threatened there. Smith (1979) mapped three collection sites in Illinois all in one river.

Total adult population size is unknown but presumably exceeds 10,000. Rage-wide, this species is locally common (Page and Burr 2011); occasional and uncommon in Kentucky (Burr and Warren 1986); common in at least two river systems in Wisconsin (Becker 1983).

Trend over the past 10 years or three generations is uncertain but probably relatively stable or slowly declining.

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Degree of Threat: Medium

Comments: No major threats are known, but the species is vulnerable to local extirpation through indiscriminant use of fish toxicants (Becker 1983).

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Major Threats
No major threats are known, but the species is vulnerable to local extirpation through indiscriminant use of fish toxicants (Becker 1983).
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Not Evaluated
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Management

Global Protection: Unknown whether any occurrences are appropriately protected and managed

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Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Currently, this species is of relatively low conservation concern and does not require significant additional protection or major management, monitoring, or research action.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

bait: occasionally
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Wikipedia

Northern Brook Lamprey

The northern brook lamprey (Ichthyomyzon fossor) is a lamprey found in North America throughout the Great Lakes Watershed. There are limited populations within the Mississippi watershed.

Life cycle[edit]

Adults spawn in the spring in the headwaters of streams. The males (aided by females) construct small nests by picking up pebbles with their mouths and moving them to form the rims of shallow depressions. The sticky eggs are deposited in the nest and adhere to the sand and gravel. Multiple adults may spawn in the same nest, and multiple males may spawn with the same female. As with all lamprey adults die after spawning.

When they first hatch embryos remain in the nest for up to one month before they mature into ammocoetes. Ammocoetes leave the nest and seek out slow flowing sandy areas, where they burrow and begin feeding. Ammocoetes live burrowed for 3-7 years, feeding on microscopic plant and animal life and detritus (decaying matter). Mature ammocoetes will begin to metamorphosis in the late summer through the fall.

References[edit]

  • Reighard and Cummins, Description of a new species of lamprey of the genus Ichthyomyzon, 1916
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Ichthyomyzon fossor and I. unicuspis may "represent ecotypes of a single species since, where they are sympatric, they appear to be experiencing ongoing gene flow" (Docker et al. 2012; see also Docker 2009).

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