Overview

Comprehensive Description

Biology

Occurs over sand, mud, and rubble areas. Feed mainly on small bottom-living gastropods. Marketed fresh or dried-salted. Also caught with bottom longlines and handlines (Ref. 9775).
  • Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen 1989 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
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Distribution

Western Pacific: Indo-Malaysian Archipelago and South China Sea.
  • Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen 1989 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
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Western Pacific.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 10; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10; Analspines: 3; Analsoft rays: 10
  • Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen 1989 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
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Size

Maximum size: 350 mm TL
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Max. size

35.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 2295))
  • Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen 1989 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
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Diagnostic Description

Description: The lower edge of the eye is well above a line from the tip of the snout to the middle of the caudal fin fork. The eye is relatively large, its diameter slightly greater than the interorbital space. Overall color is silvery-white, grayish on upper back. There are about 5-7 narrow irregular bars, which may be very faint, on the sides. A prominent blue-edged, yellow band from the front of the eye to above the upper lip encompassing the nostrils. The cheek is yellowish with 3 or 4 oblique bands sloping upwards from above the upper jaw towards the rear part of the eye. Fins are mainly clear or whitish. A black spot is at the base of upper pectoral rays; a narrow brown bar across the base of the entire fin (Ref. 2295). Body depth 2.3-2.4 in SL. Caudal fin tips pointed (Ref. 90102).
  • Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen 1989 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
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Ecology

Habitat

Environment

reef-associated; non-migratory; marine; depth range 20 - 80 m (Ref. 2295)
  • Carpenter, K.E. and G.R. Allen 1989 FAO Species Catalogue. Vol. 9. Emperor fishes and large-eye breams of the world (family Lethrinidae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of lethrinid species known to date. FAO Fish. Synop. 125(9):118 p. Rome: FAO. (Ref. 2295)
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Depth: 20 - 80m.
From 20 to 80 meters.

Habitat: reef-associated. Occurs over sand, mud, and rubble areas. Feed mainly on small bottom-living gastropods. Marketed fresh or dried-salted. Also caught with bottom longlines and handlines (Ref. 9775).
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Conservation

Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: commercial
  • Carpenter, K.E. 1997 Lethrinidae. Emperor snappers. In K.E. Carpenter and V. Niem (eds.) FAO Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. The Western Central Pacific. (Ref. 9775)
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