Overview

Distribution

Range Description

The species occurs in the southern desert and sub-desert belt of Western and Central Palaearctic from Morocco and Niger as far east as north-west India. It is possibly present in the whole of the desert area in the north of Africa where there is suitable habitat.

In the Mediterranean region it is recorded from Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Niger, northern Sudan and Egypt. In the Middle East it is found in Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and a single locality from southeastern Turkey. It has an area of occupancy of >20,000 km2 and occupies an altitude of up to 2400 m (in Pakistan).
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Distribution in Egypt

Widespread (scattered records all over Egypt).

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Occurs in desert and semi-desert habitats of the Palaearctic region. Its habitats are xeric, sparsely vegetated and rocky. It seems well adapted to arid climates (Gharaibeh and Qumsiyeh 1995). Roosts in rock fissures or in human constructions (Gharaibeh and Qumsiyeh 1995). This is a ground-gleaning species.

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Otonycteris hemprichii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 15
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2008

Assessor/s
Benda, P., Aulagnier, S. & Hutson, A.M.

Reviewer/s
Hutson, A.M., Racey, P.A. (Chiroptera Red List Authority) & Temple, H. (Global Mammal Assessment Team)

Contributor/s

Justification
This is a relatively common species in desert and sub-desert habitats of the SW Palaearctic. It has a presumed large population but the current trend is unknown, however, if it is in decline, it is unlikely to be at a rate which would qualify it for inclusion in the threatened categories. There are no major threats to the species, although it may be affected by pesticides in some parts of its range. Therefore it is listed as Least Concern.
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Status in Egypt

Native, resident.

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Population

Population
Widespread but generally rare, with a scattered distribution. Mostly solitary animals, female colonies up to 18 individuals. Litter size usually 2. In Turkmenistan the species is considered least concern. Up to 2,400 m in Tadjikistan (K. Tsytsulina pers. comm.).

Population Trend
Unknown
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Threats

Major Threats
Although not a major threat this species is affected by pesticides.
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
The species presumably occurs in some protected areas across its range. No other specific measures are known, although it will be protected under national legislation in some of the range states.

A study on the impacts of pesticides is required, especially ways in which the impact might be minimised.
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Wikipedia

Desert long-eared bat

The desert long-eared bat (Otonycteris hemprichii) is a species of vesper bat.

Contents

Distribution and range

The single species, O. hemprichi, occurs in the desert zone from Morocco and northern Niger through Egypt and the Arabian peninsula to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Pakistan to as far east as north-west India.[1]

Taxonomy

The systematic position of Otonycteris is unclear, but chromosomal analysis suggests close affinity to Barbastella and Plecotus[2]

Description

Head and body length is about 73–81 mm, tail length is about 47–70 mm, and forearm length is 57–67 mm. Several authorities[3] gave the weight of two adult males as 18 to 20 grams. The large ears, about 40 mm in length, are directed nearly horizontally and are connected across the forehead by a low band of skin. Five female specimens revealed two pairs of pectoral mammae, a unique condition in mammals. It is not known if both pairs are functional.

The coloration above is pale sandy to dark brown; the underparts are usually whitish. The skull and teeth of Otonycteris resemble those of Eptesicus

Ecology and behavior

This bat occurs normally inhabiting extremely barren and arid regions.[4] Its habitat are xeric, sparsely vegetated and rocky. In the Negev Desert a pair was found roosting in a rocky crevice on a hill. This bat has also been found in buildings.

Otonycteris hemprichii reportedly has a slow, floppy flight.[citation needed]

Diet

Based on an analysis of its body mass, low aspect ratio, and low relative wing loading, it has been predicted that the species will be found to carnivorous in diet.[5] Observations in Kyrgyzstan indicate that the bat forages close to the ground, uses echolocation to detect large flying or surface-dwelling invertebrates, and feeds mostly on arachnids and orthopterans that are seized directly from the ground.[6] A study in Israel found that up to 70% of the bat's dropping contain scorpion fragments, including the highly venomous Palestine yellow scorpion as well as other less venomous species. Laboratory observations indicate that the bats detect the scorpions by the noises they make as they walk. Once caught the bats bite the heads of the scorpion and frequently get stuck in the face by the scorpion's sting. When this occurs, no signs of toxicity have been recorded, suggesting that the bats are immune to the scorpion venom.[7][8]

Courtship and breeding

Breeding colonies of 3-15 females have been found, and seven pregnant females, most with two embryos, have been collected in central Asia.[9] Three pregnant females, each with two embryos, were found in a deserted hut in Jordan.[10]

Notes

  1. ^ Aulagnier & Mein 1985; Corbet 1978; Fairon 1980; Horacek 1991; Roberts 1977; Shaimardanov 1982
  2. ^ Qumsiyeh & Bickham 1993
  3. ^ Gaisler, Madkour, & Pelikan 1972
  4. ^ Harrison 1964
  5. ^ Norberg & Fenton 1988
  6. ^ Arlettaz et al. 1995; Horacek 1991
  7. ^ Holderied, M.; Korine, C.; Moritz, T. (2010). "Hemprich's long-eared bat (Otonycteris hemprichii) as a predator of scorpions: Whispering echolocation, passive gleaning and prey selection". Journal of Comparative Physiology A 197 (5): 425–433. doi:10.1007/s00359-010-0608-3. edit
  8. ^ Michael Marshall (2010-12-01). "The hardest bat in the world". New Scientist. Archived from the original on 2011-06-22. http://www.webcitation.org/5zdGQnyJa. Retrieved 2011-06-22.
  9. ^ Horacek 1991; Roberts 1977
  10. ^ Atallah 1977

Sources

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