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Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

  Common names: cigarfish (English), fat-head (English), flotador (Espanol), derivante (Espanol)
 
Cubiceps pauciradiatus Günther, 1872


Long-fin fat-head,     Bigeye cigarfish


Body elongate, slender, soft and flexible; large eye with a fatty ring around it; mouth small, usually ends before eye; teeth small, ~ 1 row on jaws; teeth on front and sides of roof of mouth, and base of gill arches, an oval patch of flattened knob-like teeth on tongue; 22-26 gill rakers; 2 dorsal fins, 1st  with origin behind pectoral origin, X-XI + I, 15-17; anal fin I-III, 14-16; pectorals long, in adults extend past anal origin, 17-20 rays; pelvics insert behind pectoral base; tail forked, with blunt tips; lateral line high along back; branched mucous canal along flank; scales moderate, smooth, 49-53 on lateral line, on head in a broad band that extends onto snout;  sharp bony keel along breast.


Bluey brown, fins pale; inside mouth and gill chamber very dark.



Size: 20 cm.

Habitat: oceanic, juveniles around flotsam.


Depth: 60-100 m.

Circumglobal, tropical to temperate; potentially all of the TEP except most of the Gulf of California.
   
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Biology

Occurs from the border of the continental shelf to about 1,000 m depth (Ref. 13628). Found near the surface at night (Ref. 9834). Adults feed mainly on salps (Ref. 33689).
  • Haedrich, R.L. 1986 Nomeidae. p. 846-850. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4412)
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Distribution

circumtropical; Western Atlantic: Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Source: World Register of Marine Species

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Zoogeography

See Map (including site records) of Distribution in the Tropical Eastern Pacific 
 
Global Endemism: All species, TEP non-endemic, Indo-Pacific only (Indian + Pacific Oceans), "Transpacific" (East + Central &/or West Pacific), All Pacific (West + Central + East)

Regional Endemism: All species, Eastern Pacific non-endemic, Tropical Eastern Pacific (TEP) non-endemic, Island (s), Island (s) only

Residency: Resident

Climate Zone: North Temperate (Californian Province &/or Northern Gulf of California), Northern Subtropical (Cortez Province + Sinaloan Gap), Northern Tropical (Mexican Province to Nicaragua + Revillagigedos), Equatorial (Costa Rica to Ecuador + Galapagos, Clipperton, Cocos, Malpelo), South Temperate (Peruvian Province )
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Atlantic, Indian and Pacific: circumtropical.
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Circumglobal in tropical through warm temperate seas, including Hawaiian Islands.
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Depth

Depth Range (m): 60 (S) - 100 (S)
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Physical Description

Morphology

Dorsal spines (total): 11 - 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 15 - 17; Analspines: 2; Analsoft rays: 14 - 16; Vertebrae: 30 - 31
  • Haedrich, R.L. 1986 Nomeidae. p. 846-850. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4412)
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Size

Length max (cm): 20.0 (S)
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Size

Maximum size: 200 mm TL
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Max. size

20.0 cm TL (male/unsexed; (Ref. 4412)); max. reported age: 4 years (Ref. 31631)
  • Agafonova, T.B. and V.F. Poluyaktov 1992 Age and growth rate of two species of cigarfishes, Cubiceps caeruleus and C. pauciradiatus (Nomeidae). J. Ichthyol. 32(5):1-10. (Ref. 31631)
  • Haedrich, R.L. 1986 Nomeidae. p. 846-850. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4412)
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Diagnostic Description

Light tan to brown in color; caudal fin dusky, other fins clear (Ref. 4412). Teeth patches on midline of roof of mouth and tongue large, broad and granular (sometimes partly obscured by mucous) (Ref 9834).
  • Haedrich, R.L. 1986 Nomeidae. p. 846-850. In M.M. Smith and P.C. Heemstra (eds.) Smiths' sea fishes. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. (Ref. 4412)
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Type Information

Paratype for Cubiceps pauciradiatus
Catalog Number: USNM 198058
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Fishes
Year Collected: 1960
Locality: Gulf of Mexico, Alabama, United States, Atlantic
Vessel: Oregon
  • Paratype:
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Ecology

Habitat

Occurs from the border of the continental shelf to about 1,000 m depth.
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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nektonic
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Environment

bathypelagic; marine; depth range 58 - 1000 m (Ref. 13628)
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Depth range based on 80 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 61 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 1922.5
  Temperature range (°C): 3.258 - 26.874
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.137 - 37.081
  Salinity (PPS): 32.571 - 36.527
  Oxygen (ml/l): 1.864 - 6.852
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 2.827
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.921 - 140.786

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 1922.5

Temperature range (°C): 3.258 - 26.874

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.137 - 37.081

Salinity (PPS): 32.571 - 36.527

Oxygen (ml/l): 1.864 - 6.852

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.092 - 2.827

Silicate (umol/l): 0.921 - 140.786
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Depth: 58 - 1000m.
From 58 to 1000 meters.

Habitat: bathypelagic. Occurs near the surface at night in offshore waters but daytime depth is not known (Ref. 9834).
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Salinity: Marine, Marine Only

Inshore/Offshore: Offshore Only, Offshore

Water Column Position: Surface, Near Surface, Mid Water, Water column only

Habitat: Water column

FishBase Habitat: Bathypelagic
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Trophic Strategy

Occurs from the border of the continental shelf to about 1,000 m depth (Ref. 13628). Found near the surface at night (Ref. 9834). Adults feed mainly on salps (Ref. 33689).
  • Gorelova, T.A., T.B. Agafonova and N.J. Lipskaya 1994 Feeding of cigarfishes (Genus Cubiceps, Stromateiodei. J. Ichthyol. 34(7):70-82. (Ref. 33689)
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Feeding

Feeding Group: Carnivore, Planktivore

Diet: zooplankton, pelagic fish eggs, pelagic fish larvae, bony fishes
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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Diet

Adults feed mainly on salps
  • North-West Atlantic Ocean species (NWARMS)
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Reproduction

Egg Type: Pelagic, Pelagic larva
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Cubiceps pauciradiatus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Cubiceps pauciradiatus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 24
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List: Not evaluated / Listed

CITES: Not listed
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Threats

Not Evaluated
  • IUCN 2006 2006 IUCN red list of threatened species. www.iucnredlist.org. Downloaded July 2006.
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Importance

fisheries: of no interest
  • May, J.L. and J.G.H. Maxwell 1986 Trawl fish from temperate waters of Australia. CSIRO Division of Fisheries Research, Tasmania. 492 p. (Ref. 9563)
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