The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.


  • Nunan, L.M., Lightner, D.V., Oduori, M.A., and Gasparich, G.E. "Spiroplasma penaei sp. nov., associated with mortalities in Penaeus vannamei, Pacific white shrimp." Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. (2005) 55:2317-2322.
  • Nunan. 2005. IJSEM Vol. 55 pp. 2320
  • WoRMS (2015). Spiroplasma penaei Nunan, Lightner, Oduori & Gasparich, 2005. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at


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