Wikipedia

Brucella

Brucella is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria[2][3] named after David Bruce (1855-1931). They are small (0.5 to 0.7 by 0.6 to 1.5 µm), non-motile, non-encapsulated coccobacilli, which function as facultative intracellular parasites.

Brucella is the cause of brucellosis, which is a zoonosis. It is transmitted by ingesting contaminated food (such as unpasteurized milk products), direct contact with an infected animal, or inhalation of aerosols. Transmission from human to human, for example through sexual intercourse or from mother to child, is exceedingly rare, but possible.[4] Minimum infectious exposure is between 10 - 100 organisms.

The different species of Brucella are genetically very similar, although each has a slightly different host specificity (see below). Hence, the NCBI taxonomy includes most Brucella species under Brucella melitensis.

The many names of brucellosis include (human disease/animal disease):

  • Malta fever/Bang’s disease
  • Undulant fever/enzootic abortion
  • Mediterranean fever/epizootic abortion
  • Rock fever of Gibraltar/slinking of calves
  • Gastric fever/ram epididymitis
  • Contagious abortion/spontaneous abortion[5]

Human brucella[edit]

Sir David Bruce isolated B. melitensis from British soldiers who died from Malta fever in Malta. After exposure to Brucella, humans generally have a two- to four-week latency period before exhibiting symptoms, which include acute undulating fever (>90% of all cases), headache, arthralgia (>50%), night sweats, fatigue, and anorexia.[6] Later complications may include arthritis or epididymoorchitis, spondylitis, neurobrucellosis, liver abscess formation, and endocarditis, the latter potentially fatal.[7]

Human brucellosis is usually not transmitted from human to human; people become infected by contact with fluids from infected animals (sheep, cattle, or pigs) or derived food products, such as unpasteurized milk and cheese. Brucellosis is also considered an occupational disease because of a higher incidence in people working with animals (slaughterhouse cases). People may also be infected by inhalation of contaminated dust or aerosols, and as such the CDC has labeled Brucella species as highly weaponizable. Human and animal brucellosis share the persistence of the bacteria in tissues of the mononuclear phagocyte system, including the spleen, liver, lymph nodes, and bone marrow. Brucella can also target the male reproductive tract.[6]

Globally,an estimated 500,000 cases of brucellosis occur each year.[6]

Malta fever was a major health problem to British troops in Malta in the 19th and early 20th centuries, resulting in over 6000 cases and 574 deaths.[8] In 1860, J.A. Maraston, assistant surgeon in the British Army in Malta, gave the first accurate description of the disease he called “Mediterranian gastric remittent fever”. In 1897, A.E. Wright, a pathologist in British army, developed the agglutination test, diagnostic of the disease.

In 1905, Zammit, a Maltese physician, identified goats as the source of infection. E. Bang, a Danish veterinarian, described the intracelular pathogen causing abortion in cattle in 1897, and named it Bacillus abortus. In 1918, A. Evans, an American microbiologist, made the connection between B. abortus and Micrococcus melitensis, and placed them in the Bacteriaceae.

In 1914, Mohler isolated an organism from the liver and spleen of pigs, B. suis. B. neotome, B. ovis, and B. canis were described in 1957, 1963, and 1966, respectively.[8]

Transmission[edit]

Zoonosis affecting domestic animals is caused by contact with milk, urine, and genital organs, which concentrate the causative organisms. In humans, the disease is acquired from unpasteurised milk and products or undercooked meat (consumers), laboratory inhalation (lab workers), accidental skin penetration or abrasion (farmers, slaughterhouse workers, and veterinarians) and (rarely) conjunctival contact, blood transfusion, transplacental, and person to person.[9]

Human disease[edit]

Brucellosis can affect any organ or organ system, and 90% of patients have a cyclical (undulant) fever. Though variable, symptoms can also include these clinical signs: headache, weakness, arthralgia, depression, weight loss, fatigue, and liver dysfunction. Foul smelling perspiration is considered a classical sign. About 20-60% of cases have osteoarticular complications - arthritis, spondylitis, or osteomyelitis. Hepatomegaly may occur, as can gastrointestinal complications.

About 2-20% of cases can have genitourinary involvement; orchitis and epididymitis are most common. Neurological symptoms include depression and mental fatigue. Cardiovascular involvement can include endocarditis resulting in death.

Chronic brucellosis is hard to define; length, type, and response to treatment are variable. Localized infection can occur. Blood donations of infected persons should not be accepted.

Congenitally infected infants can exhibit low birth weight, failure to thrive, jaundice, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, respiratory difficulty, and general signs of sepsis (fever, vomiting). Some cases are asymptomatic.[10]

Characteristics[edit]

Brucella species are small, Gram-negative, facultative coccobacilli, most lacking a capsule, flagella, endospores, or native plasmids. They are intracellular within the host organism, and show environmental persistence outside the host. They survive extremes in temperature, pH, and humidity, and is frozen and aborted materials. They infect many species, but with some specificity.[1]

Clinical manifestations[edit]

The gastrointestinal tract is affected in about 70% of cases, including: anorexia, abd. pain, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, hepatomegaly, and splenomegaly. The liver is involved in most cases, but function tests are normal or mildly abnormal. Granulomas (B. abortus), hepatitis (B. melitensis) and abscesses (B. suis)are seen.

The skeletal system is affected in 20-60% of cases, including: arthritis (hip, knee and ankle), spondylitis, osteomyelitis, and sacroiliitis (most common). Lumbar vertebrae can be affected showing the classical radiological sign of vertebral erosion (Pedro Pons sign) Neurological symptoms include meningitis, encephalitis, radiculopathy, and peripheral neuropathy, Intracerebral abscesses, acute or chronic neck rigidity (< 50%) occur, and the cerebrospinal fluid can show lymphocytic pleocytosis, low sugar, increased protein, positive bacterial culture (< 50%) and agglutination (positive in >95%).

Cardiovascular involvement is low (endocarditis at 2%), but is the major cause of mortality. Often, valve replacement and antibiotics are needed. Pericarditis and myocarditis are seen, too.

Pulmonary infection can be from inhalation or hematogenous sources, and can cause any chest syndrome. Rarely is Brucella isolated from sputum. Genitourinary infection can include epidydemoorchitis or pyonephrosis (rare). Cutaneous involvement is not specific. Hematological signs include anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia.[11]

Diagnosis[edit]

[10][12] Brucella is isolated from a blood culture on Castaneda medium or from bone marrow. Prolonged incubation (up to six weeks) may be required, as they are slow-growing, but on modern automated machines, the cultures often show positive results within seven days. On Gram stain, they appear as dense clumps of Gram-negative coccobacilli and are exceedingly difficult to see. In recent years, molecular diagnostic techniques based on the genetic component of the pathogen have become more popular.[3]

It is crucial to be able to differentiate Brucella from Salmonella, which could also be isolated from blood cultures and are Gram-negative. Testing for urease would successfully accomplish the task; it is positive for Brucella and negative for Salmonella. Brucella can also be seen in bone marrow biopsies.

Laboratory-acquired brucellosis is common.[13] This most often happens when the disease is not thought of until cultures become positive, by which time the specimens have already been handled by a number of laboratory staff. The idea of preventive treatment is to stop people who have been exposed to Brucella from becoming ill with the disease. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) shows promise for rapid diagnosis of Brucella species in human blood specimens. Positive PCR at the completion of treatment is not predictive of subsequent relapse. PCR testing for fluid and tissue samples other than blood has also been described. A history of animal contact is pivotal; in endemic area, it should be in the diagnosis of any nonspecific febrile illness.

In the laboratory, biochemical tests can be diagnostic.[11] Oxidase and catalase tests are positive for most members of the genus Brucella.

TestB. melitensisB. abortusB. suisB. neotomaeB. ovisB. canis
Need to CO2-+--+-
production of H2S-+++--
Growth on basic fushin 0.002%++--+-
Growth on thionin 0.004%--+-++
Growth on thionin 0.002%+-++++
Destroy withTb phage-+----

Serum agglutination with a titer of > 1:160 in the presence of a compatible illness supports the diagnosis of brucellosis. Demonstration of a four-fold or greater increase or decrease in agglutinating antibodies over four to 12 weeks provides even stronger evidence for the diagnosis.

ELISA is probably the second most common serologic method.[14] The sensitivity of the ELISA was 100% when compared with blood culture, but only 44% compared with serologic tests other than ELISA. The specificity was > 99%. In a study including 75 patients with brucellosis, five patients with positive ELISA had a negative tube agglutination test.

In the setting of Brucella arthritis, the synovial fluid white blood cell count does not generally exceed 15,000 cells/μl.[14] In brucellosis, lymphocytes frequently predominate (in contrast to septic arthritis due to other bacteria, in which polymorphonuclear leukocytes frequently predominate.

The prognosis[15] for brucellosis before the use of antibiotics had a mortality of 2%, mainly due to endocarditis, and morbidity was high \, especially with B. melitensis. Permanent nerve deafness and spinal cord damage often occurred.

Prevention[14] now includes:

  • Control of disease in domestic animals by immunization using B. abortus strain 19 and B. melitensis strain Rev 1. Vaccination in young cattle helps in protection, but does not offer full effectiveness.
  • Routine pasteurization of milk
  • In labs, strict biosafety precautions


Treatment[edit]

No clinical trials exist to be relied on as a guide for optimal treatment, but a at least six-week course of rifampicin or gentamicin and doxycycline twice daily is the combination most often used, and appears to be efficacious;,[13][16][17][18] the advantage of this regimen is that it is oral medication with no injections; however, a high rate of side effects (nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite) has also been reported.[18]

As of August 2013, Allison Rice-Ficht, Ph.D. at Texas A&M University and her team claim to be close to creating a human vaccine. It would primarily be used to immunize members of the military in case of exposure to weaponized Brucella on the battlefield.[19]

Host specificity and animal brucellosis[edit]

Brucella species have been found primarily in mammals:[6]

SpeciesHost
B. melitensisgoats and sheep
B. abortuscattle
B. canisdogs
B. suispigs
B. ovissheep
B. neotomaedesert woodrat (Neotoma lepida)
B. pinnipedialisseal
B. cetidolphin, porpoise, whale
B. microticommon vole (Microtus arvalis)
B. inopinataunknown
Brucella sp. NVSL 07-0026baboon

Pathogenic Brucella species can cause abortion in female animals by colonization of placental trophoblasts, and sterility in male animal.[20] Drugs with effects against Brucella' include tetracyclines, aminoglycosides (streptomycin (since 1947), gentamicin, netilmicin), rifampicin, quinolones (ciprofloxacin) and third-generation cephalosporins. Treatment for uncomplicated brucellosis include:

  • Streptomycin + doxycycline for 6 weeks
  • TMP/SMX + doxycycline for 6 weeks

Rifampicin + doxycycline for 6 weeks

Treatment of complicated brucellosis (endocarditis, meningitis) has no uniform agreement, but usually uses three anti-Brucella drugs for three months.

Possible pathogens responsible for the plague in Thebes[edit]

According to a January 2012 article in Emerging Infectious Diseases, pathogens that fit the characteristics of the plague described in Oedipus Rex include Leishmania species, Leptospira spp., Brucella abortus, Orthopoxviridae viruses, and Francisella tularensis. While the authors note that the disease progression of brucellosis in modern times may make it seem unlikely, they posit that it may have been an agent impacting the livestock, while humans might have been infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi or another pathogen, or that the ancestral versions of Brucella may have been more lethal.[21]

Genomics[edit]

The genomes of most Brucella species have been sequenced,[22] and typically encode 3,200 to 3,500 open reading frames (ORFs). Examples include:

  1. Brucella abortus A13334, 3,401 ORFs
  2. Brucella canis ATCC 23365, 3,408 ORFs
  3. Brucella melitensis 16M, 3,279 ORFs
  4. Brucella microti CCM 4915, 3,346 ORFs
  5. Brucella ovis ATCC 25840, 3,193 ORFs
  6. Brucella pinnipedialis B2/94, 3,505 ORFs
  7. Brucella suis 1330, 3,408 ORFs

Genome data for these and other Brucella strains are available in the GOLD[22] and PATRIC[23] databases.

Effect of blue light[edit]

Infection of macrophages by B. abortus is stimulated by blue light in the wild type, but is limited in photochemically inactive and null mutants, indicating a flavin-containing histidine kinase functions as a photoreceptor regulating B. abortus virulence. Conversely, depriving Brucella of the blue wavelengths dropped its reproductive rate by 90%.[24][25]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Muleme.M , Mugabi.R ,” BRUCELLOSIS OUTBREAK INVESTIGATIONS”Sakran et al, 2006
  2. ^ Ryan KJ, Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9. 
  3. ^ a b Lopez-Goni, I; O'Callaghan, D (editor) (2012). Brucella: Molecular Microbiology and Genomics. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-93-6. 
  4. ^ "Diagnosis and Management of Acute Brucellosis in Primary Care". Brucella Subgroup of the Northern Ireland Regional Zoonoses Group. August 2004. 
  5. ^ Xavier.M.N, Paixão.T.A,”Pathogenesis of Brucella spp.” The Open Veterinary Science Journal, 2010, 4, 109-118
  6. ^ a b c d Atluri, V. L.; Xavier, M. N.; De Jong, M. F.; Den Hartigh, A. B.; Tsolis, R. E. M. (2011). "Interactions of the Human PathogenicBrucellaSpecies with Their Hosts". Annual Review of Microbiology 65: 523–541. doi:10.1146/annurev-micro-090110-102905. PMID 21939378.  edit
  7. ^ Gorvel, J. P. (2008). "Brucella: A Mr "Hide" converted into Dr Jekyll". Microbes and Infection 10 (9): 1010–1013. doi:10.1016/j.micinf.2008.07.007. PMID 18664389.  edit
  8. ^ a b Ariza.J , Bosilkovski.M , “Perspectives for the Treatment of Brucellosis in the 21st Century:The Ioannina Recommendations”,2007, PLoS Medicine, Volume 4 ,Issue 12 , 317
  9. ^ Ertem M, Kurekci AE,” Brucella Species”,2009, APPENDIX 2,Volume 49
  10. ^ a b Poester.F , Nielsen.K ,” Diagnosis of Brucellosis”,2010, The Open Veterinary Science Journal, 4, 46-60
  11. ^ a b Hofer.E,”Microbiological diagnosis of Brucella spp. and Austrian epidemiology of brucellosis (B. suis biovar 2) ”,2009, Institute for Veterinary Disease Control, Mödling
  12. ^ Gopaulk.K., Koylassm.S., “Rapid identification of Brucella isolates to the species level by real time PCR-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis.” (2008). BMC Microbiology, 8, 86
  13. ^ a b Robichaud S, Libman M, Behr M, Rubin E (2004). "Prevention of laboratory-acquired brucellosis". Clin. Infect. Dis. 38 (12): e119–22. doi:10.1086/421024. PMID 15227634. 
  14. ^ a b c Corbel.M.J,” Brucellosis in humans and animals”,2006, WHO/CDS/EPR, ISBN 92 4 154713 8
  15. ^ Blasco .JM,” CONTROL AND ERADICATION STRATEGIES FOR BRUCELLA MELITENSIS INFECTION IN SHEEP AND GOATS”,2010, Contributions, Sec. Biol. Med. Sci., 145–165
  16. ^ E Torok. et al Oxford Handbook Infect Dis and Microbiology, 2009
  17. ^ Gilbert DN et al. The Sanford guide to antimicrobial therapy 2013
  18. ^ a b Maley MW, Kociuba K, Chan RC (2006). "Prevention of laboratory-acquired brucellosis: significant side effects of prophylaxis". Clin. Infect. Dis. 42 (3): 433–4. doi:10.1086/499112. PMID 16392095. 
  19. ^ Williamson, Blair. "Victory in the Battle against Brucella: From bench to battlefield". Vital Record: News from Texas A&M HSC. 
  20. ^ M.J. Corbel (1997) Brucellosis: an overview, Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3: 213-221.
  21. ^ Kousoulis AA, Economopoulos KP, Poulakou-Rebelakou E, Androutsos G, Tsiodras S. The plague of Thebes, a historical epidemic in Sophocles’ Oedipus Rex. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012 Jan. http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid1801.AD1801
  22. ^ a b "GOLD Database". Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  23. ^ "Brucella genomes in PATRIC". PATRIC. Retrieved 22 October 2012. 
  24. ^ "Deadly in the Daylight" August 23, 2007 in ScienceNOW Daily News. Accessed September 8, 2007.
  25. ^ "Blue-Light-Activated Histidine Kinases: Two-Component Sensors in Bacteria", August 24, 2007, Science Vol. 317:5841, pp. 1090 - 1093 Accessed September 8, 2007.
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