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Streptococcus canis

Streptococcus canis is a Group G beta-hemolytic species of Streptococcus.[1] It was first isolated in dogs, giving the bacteria its name. These bacteria are characteristically different from Streptococcus dysgalactiae, which is a human specific Group G species that has a different phenotypic chemical composition. Streptococcus canis is important to the skin and mucosa health of cats and dogs, however under certain circumstances these bacteria will cause opportunistic infections. These infections were known to afflict dogs and cats prior to the formal description of the species in Devriese et al., 1986.[2] However additional studies revealed cases of infection in other mammal species, including cows [3] and even humans.[4] Instances of mortality from Streptococcus canis in humans are very low with only a few reported cases, while actual instances of infection may be underreported due to mischaracterizations of the bacteria as Streptococcus dysgalactiae. This bacteria species, in general, is highly susceptible to antibiotics and plans to develop a vaccine to prevent human infections are currently being considered.[5]

There are four serogroups of hemolytic Streptococci that have been identified in domesticated dogs belonging to Lancefield Groups A, C, E, and G.[6] Of these four, Streptococcus canis is described as belonging to Group G due to it being a beta-hemolytic and aesculin-negative Streptococci that is able to perform lactose fermentation. These bacteria are known to be part of the natural flora of the respiratory tract of cats and dogs. This bacterium was originally isolated from dogs and has been differentiated from Streptococcus dysgalactiae, which is the Group G Streptococci that is of human origin. Streptococcus canis is known to infect a variety of mammal species including dogs, cats, mink, mice, rabbits, foxes, cows, and even humans.[2]

Activity or ProductionHuman Strains (Streptococcus dysgalactiae)Animal Strains (Streptococcus canis)
Hyaluronidase+-
Fibrinolysin+-
α-Galactosidase-+
β-Galactosidase-+
β-Glucuronidase+-
Acid Produced from Trehalose+-
Acid Produced from Lactose+/-+
Methyl-D-glucopyranoside+/-+

Bacterial Infections[edit]

Infections in Cats and Dogs

The bacterium, Streptococcus canis is considered to be an important part of the healthy microbiota of cats and dogs promoting skin and mucosa health.[7] However despite these benefits under certain circumstances, it has been reported that strains of this bacteria case diseases in a variety of mammals. When opportunistic infection does occur, treatment with antibiotics is very successful at clearing the disease and preventing mortality due to the low levels of resistance in this species. During infection the bacteria has been known to cause neonatal septicemia, abortion, and cellulitis in dogs. In addition it was determined in 1998 that Streptococcus canis is also responsible for streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and necrotizing fasciitis (NF).[8] However it has been contested if STSS and NF are caused by the solely Streptococcus canis infection or if it is induced from the treatment of dogs with fluoroquinolone during the infection. While in other mammals the pathogen can cause lymphadenitis, arthritis, fever, mastitis, wound infections and other conditions that vary depending on the host species. The possibility of an outbreak increases for animals that are very young, very old, confined to a densely populated area, or remain confined for long periods of time.[9] Multiple fatal outbreaks have been reported among shelter cats due to the susceptibility of many of the cats and the close proximity of individuals within a shelter. The development of disease can occur rapidly and symptoms in cats include skin ulceration, chronic respiratory infection, and necrotizing sinusitis. The persistence and spread of these bacteria in a confined area can lead to both sepsis and death, quickly resulting in extremely high levels of mortality among susceptible cats. Similar instances have been reported for dogs; however the levels of mortality were considerably lower.

Infections in Cattle

Occurrences of Group G Streptococci in animals are mostly associated with Streptococcus canis which normally infects domesticated dogs and cats. However, it has been recorded that the pathogen can be vertically transferred to other domesticated animals from either of these two common household animals. A documented instance of this transfer occurred on a central New York farm between a cat which was exhibiting chronic sinusitis and a dairy cow.[3] This transfer resulted in Streptococcus canis mastitis on the udders of the cow, which appeared to be normal leading to a prolonged diagnosis. Additional horizontal disease transfer to other cows in the herd was facilitated due to poor udder health management procedures, which included the use of a common cloth to wipe the udders of the cows following milking and the failure to use disinfection techniques. An outbreak of Streptococcus canis mastitis occurred from these transfers but was controlled using antibiotic treatments and implementing prevention techniques. Not limited to strains within the United States of America, there have been reported instances of bovine mastitis due to Streptococcus canis in other areas of the globe. In both Germany [10] and Israel similar outbreaks occurred due to vertical disease transfer from either a domesticated cat or dog.[11] But during the Israel outbreak the cows were clinically examined to determine the susceptibility of the pathogen to various antibiotics. From this study it was determined that the bacteria were sensitive to cephalothin and partially resistant to penicillin.

Cases of Human Infection

The occurrence of Streptococcus canis was thought for years to be limited to cats and dogs with rare instances of infection in cows and other animals. However, it has been reported to form complexes with human albumin through the formation of binding sites.[12] This ability to bind albumin in humans, in addition to the previously studied binding ability in domesticated animals, provided strong experimental evidence that the disease could be vertically transferred to humans. Medical cases support that humans under certain circumstances can become infected. Such infections may have gone undiscovered in the past due to difficulties in characterizing the biochemical make up of this pathogen compared to the known human infecting species like Streptococcus dysgalactiae. An elderly man who owned a dog was emitted to the hospital after exhibiting malaise, fever, and tachycardia and treated with antibiotics until he recovered. It was later determined that the varicose ulcers present on his legs were the points of entry for the disease transferred from his dog and thus led to his symptoms. In another case of human infection, an elderly woman was initially admitted to the hospital after slight bruising of her eyebrow and readmitted a few days later with a high fever.[13] Medical analysis determined that this fever was the result of meningitis and sepsis that ultimately led to the death of the patient after antibiotics failed. Additional support for the possibility of Streptococcus canis infections in humans has been provided by multiple cases linking the occurrence of the disease to dog ownership in elderly men.[14] In these cases all men had a history of ulcers on their lower limbs, which acted as an entry point for the transmission of bacteria from the respiratory tract of the dogs. This history in combination with continued exposure in the form of the household dogs led to the transfer of the disease and the expression of symptoms that required medical attention.

Vaccine Development

Analysis of the genomic library of Streptococcus canis led to the identification of a new streptococcal protective antigen (SPA) associated with the bacteria.[5] It has been suggested that this SPA may be an important component of a vaccine to prevent future infections, based on successful applications of an antiserum in a mouse model. However additional studies are required to produce a vaccine that would be available for use in humans.

See also[edit]

beta-hemolytic

VetBact

References[edit]

  1. ^ Whatmore AM, Engler KH, Gudmundsdottir G, Efstratiou A (November 2001). "Identification of isolates of Streptococcus canis infecting humans". J. Clin. Microbiol. 39 (11): 4196–9. doi:10.1128/JCM.39.1.4196-4199.2001. PMC 88517. PMID 11682560. 
  2. ^ a b Devriese, L A, Hommez, J, Kilpper-Balz, R, and Schleifer, K (July 1986). "Streptococcus canis sp. nov.: a species of Group G Streptococci from animals.". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology 36 (3): 422–5. doi:10.1099/00207713-36-3-422. PMC 207713. 
  3. ^ a b Tikofsky, L L and Zadoks, R N (March 2005). "Cross-infection between cats and cows: origin and control of Streptococcus canis mastitis in a dairy herd". Journal of Diary Science 88 (8): 2707–13. doi:10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(05)72949-0. PMC 229672. 
  4. ^ Bert F and Lambert-Zechovsky N (April 1997). "Septicemia caused by Streptococcus canis in a human". J. Clin. Microbiol. 35 (3): 777–9. PMC 229672. 
  5. ^ a b Yang, J., Liu, Y., Xu, J., and Li, B (November 2010). "Characterization of a new protective antigen of Streptococcus canis". Veterinary Research Communications 34 (1): 413–21. doi:10.1007/s11259-010-9414-1. 
  6. ^ Biberstein, E L, Brown, C, and Smith, T (June 1980). "Serogroups and biotypes among beta-hemolytic Streptococci of canine origin". J. Clin. Microbiol. 11 (6): 558–561. PMC 273460. PMID 7430328. 
  7. ^ Lyskova, P, Vydrzalova, M, Kralovcova, D, and Mazurova, J (October 2007). "Prevalence and characteristics of Streptococcus canis strains isolated from dogs and cats.". ACTA Veterinaria BRNO 76 (1): 619–25. doi:10.2754/avb200776040619. 
  8. ^ DeWinter, L M and Prescott, J F (1999). "Relatedness of Streptococcus canis from canine streptococcal toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis.". Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 63 (1): 90–5. PMC 1189525. 
  9. ^ Pesavento, P A, Bannasch, M J, Bachmann, R, Byrne, B A, and Hurley, K F (2007). "Fatal Streptococcus canis infections in intensively housed shelter cats.". Veterinary Pathology 44 (2): 218–21. doi:10.1354/vp.44-2-218. 
  10. ^ Hassan, A A, Akineden, O, and Usleber, E (March 2005). "Identification of Streptococcus canis isolate from milk of dairy cows with subclinical mastitis". Journal of Clinical Microbiology 43 (3): 1234–8. doi:10.1128/JCM.43.3.1234-1238.2005. 
  11. ^ Chaffer, M, Friedman, S, Saran, A, and Younis, A (March 2005). "An outbreak of Streptococcus canis mastitis in a dairy herd in Israel". New Zealand Veterinary Journal 53 (4): 261–4. doi:10.1080/00480169.2005.36557. 
  12. ^ Lammler, C., Frede, C., Gurturk, K., Hildebrand, A. and Blobel, H. (August 1988). "Binding activity of Streptococcus canis for Albumin and other plasma proteins". Journal of General Microbiology 134 (1): 2317–23. doi:10.1099/00221287-134-8-2317. 
  13. ^ Jacobs, J.A., Krom, M.C.T., Kellens, J.T.C., and Stobberingh, E.E. (March 1993). "Meningitis and sepsis due to Group G Streptococcus". Letters 12 (3): 244. doi:10.1007/BF01967119. 
  14. ^ Lam, M.M., Clarridge III, J.E., Young, E.J., and Mizuki, S. (May 2007). "The other Group G Streptococcus: increased detection of Streptococcus canis ulcer infections in dog owners". Journal of Clinical Microbiology 45 (7): 2327–9. doi:10.1128/JCM.01765-06. 
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