Articles on this page are available in 1 other language: Spanish (1) (learn more)

Overview

Comprehensive Description

Enteromorpha flexuosa is a filamentous light green alga with worldwide distribution in shallow brackish or marine habitats (Mairh, Pandey and Tewari 1986, Littler and Littler 1989). The term 'enteromorpha' literally means 'intestine shaped' and is used to describe the hollow, tube-like filaments of this species.E. flexuosa grows to 20 cm but generally tends to be smaller. It typically grows in clusters on mangrove roots, rocks, wood or as an epiphyte on other plants. It is found at depths ranging from the high intertidal zone to approximately 5 m. below the surface. Species of this weedy genus are often the first to colonize open substrata (Beach et al. 1995). The ecological success of E. flexuosa and other pioneering species is in part attributed to the readily available pool of motile unicells that are able to rapidly colonize new areas. The chance for successful settlement of these cells is greatly enhanced because gametes and zoospores of this species remain viable for 10 or more days due to their ability to photosynthesize, often achieving photosynthetic rates approaching those of the adult thalli (Beach et al. 1989).
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

E. flexuosa is an excellent pioneer species and is highly cosmopolitan in shallow marine or brackish habitats. E. flexuosa is found lagoon-wide. It is common in inlet areas and around spoil islands and grows in tufts on substrata such as mangrove roots, wood, rocks, etc., primarily at low tide level. It is often epiphytic on other algae and seagrasses. E. flexuosa is highly abundant during the summer months in Florida.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Size

Mairh, Pandey and Tewari (1986) observed maximum growth and increase in the biomass of E. flexuosa when it was growing at or near the surface of the water. Significantly lower biomass was observed when E. flexuosa was grown at a depth of 40 cm. If left undisturbed and ungrazed by fish and invertebrates, E. flexuosa can grow to approximately 20 cm.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Type Information

Type locality: Duino (near Trieste), Adriatic Sea
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

Source: AlgaeBase

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 2 specimens in 3 taxa.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Depth range based on 31 specimens in 2 taxa.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 3 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 60
  Temperature range (°C): 15.011 - 26.478
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.263 - 7.423
  Salinity (PPS): 35.054 - 36.958
  Oxygen (ml/l): 4.574 - 5.748
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.105 - 1.031
  Silicate (umol/l): 0.926 - 8.687

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 60

Temperature range (°C): 15.011 - 26.478

Nitrate (umol/L): 0.263 - 7.423

Salinity (PPS): 35.054 - 36.958

Oxygen (ml/l): 4.574 - 5.748

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.105 - 1.031

Silicate (umol/l): 0.926 - 8.687
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Trophic Strategy

AutotrophicCompetitors: E. flexuosa is an excellent pioneer species, able to colonize newly available substrata year-round (Emerson and Zedler 1978). Yet, it is not a good competitor with other successional species. Emerson and Zedler (1978), in an experimental study of recolonization of intertidal algae following disturbance, showed that E. flexuosa tends to be present in low density (as measured in % cover) throughout the year in undisturbed zones. Following disturbance to an area, the density of this species increases dramatically within 2-3 weeks. However, as other algae become established, the percent cover for this species declines. This observation suggests that E. flexuosa may be unable to maintain dominance in the presence of later successional species such as Ulva rigida, Lithrothrix aspergillum, and other perennial algae (Emerson and Zedler 1978).Habitat: E. flexuosa is found to depths of 5 meters in shallow brackish areas, or marine habitats in close proximity to freshwater seeps (Littler and Litter 1989). It is also likely to be found in areas influenced by municipal or industrial discharge. Rosas and Ruiz (1989) showed that Enteromorpha species, as well as some Ulva species, develop abundantly in zones directly affected by pollution, even as the abundance of other genera decreases. In areas affected by pollutive discharge, E. flexuosa becomes a highly successful fouling organism.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Associations

E. flexuosa is often found in association with pioneering species such as Ulva sp. and other fouling organisms. These are often the first plants to colonize freshly disturbed areas, or open substrata.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Population Biology

Highly abundant, especially throughout the summer months in Florida.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Optimum reproduction temperature is under 30° C (Mairh, Pandey and Tewari 1986) in waters with a pH of approximately 8.2.E. flexuosa is highly fecund (Beach et al. 1989), with propagule release via both mitotic spores and meiotic gametes occurring on a daily basis in the lower latitudes. Release of reproductive cells (spores and gametes) into the intertidal zone is driven by tidal and lunar rhythms (Smith 1947, Christie and Evans 1962, Beach et al. 1995). Spores and gametes of this species are photosynthetically competent upon release into the water column, with unicells remaining motile for up to 11 days. Both gametes and zoospores have higher cellular respiration rates when compared to parental tissues, presumably due to their motility. Additionally, the photosynthetic rate for gametes and zoospores of E. flexuosa and several other pioneering species is substantially higher than photosynthetic rates observed in the reproductive cells of later successional genera such as the kelps (Phaeophyta). Thus, motility coupled with photosynthetic ability increase the ecological success in settlement and recruitment of this species.
Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-NC-SA 3.0)

© Smithsonian Marine Station at Fort Pierce

Source: Indian River Lagoon Species Inventory

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Ulva flexuosa

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Ulva flexuosa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Ulva flexuosa

Ulva flexuosa is a species of seaweed in Ulvaceae family that can be found worldwide.

Contents

Distribution[edit]

Europe[edit]

The species can be found in such European countries as Belgium, Bulgaria, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Great Britain (Scotland), and on island of Corsica.[1]

Africa[edit]

In Africa it can be found in Algeria, Cameroon, Egypt, Gabon, Guinea, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Liberia, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, South Africa, Togo, Tunisia, and on the islands such as Canary Islands, Madagascar, Mauritius and São Tomé & Príncipe.[1]

Asia[edit]

In Asia, it is found in Bahrain, China, India, Iran, Israel, Kuwait, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan and Yemen.

Americas[edit]

It is also have North and South American distribution, which includes countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, Uruguay and Venezuela. In Central America it can be found in such countries as Belize, Costa Rica, and Panama, while in Caribbean it can be found on Bahamas, Barbados, Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Martinique, Tobago, Virgin Islands, and on Lesser and Netherlands Antilles.[1]

The species is distributed throughout the US states such as California, Florida, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oregon, Texas, and Washington.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Wulfen, F.X. (1803). "Cryptogama aquatica" 3. Archives de Botanique. pp. 1–64. 


Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Average rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!