Overview

Comprehensive Description

Description

 Heterosiphonia plumosa is a red to deep crimson seaweed which appears black when dried. This species has a flattened, fern-like appearance with a hairy thallus growing from a discoid holdfast. The fronds are flat or slightly cylindrical up to 20 cm in length and 0.5 cm in diameter at the base, tapering towards the apex. The primary branching from the main frond occurs in a single plane, and is alternately, yet irregularly spaced with up to 1 cm between each branch. Each branch is bare at the base, with the rest bearing an irregular and alternately arranged series of smaller secondary branches. The secondary branches are progressively shorter towards the apex, and each branch bears numerous pointed branchlets giving an overall tufted and feather-like appearance.Heterosiphonia plumosa is a perennial (life cycle >2 years) species, reproducing mainly during the summer and autumn. The cystocarps of Heterosiphonia plumosa are ovate and borne near the base of the branchlets, as are the tetrasporangia in asexual individuals, which are lanceolate and stalked (Dickinson, 1963). Both can be easily distinguished under a hand lens.  

Heterosiphonia plumosa has several recorded variations, most notably Heterosiphonia plumosa f. palens which is typically slender and up to 7.5 cm in length. The fronds are smooth with evenly spaced branches and commonly occurs in deeper coastal waters (Dickinson, 1963).

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Description

Thallus erect to 30 cms polysiphonous with 9-10 periaxial cells. Branched irregularly in one plane irregularly alternate. Ultimate ramuli monosiphonous and formed in "pincer-like" pairs.
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Source: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland

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Distribution

Widely distributed around the British Isles including the Shetlands and the Channel Islands. Europe: Portugal, Spain, France, the Baltic and Norway.
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Ecology

Habitat

Depth range based on 216 specimens in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 33 samples.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 36.3
  Temperature range (°C): 11.054 - 12.348
  Nitrate (umol/L): 4.729 - 7.251
  Salinity (PPS): 35.008 - 35.363
  Oxygen (ml/l): 6.095 - 6.346
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.335 - 0.501
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.311 - 3.727

Graphical representation

Depth range (m): 0 - 36.3

Temperature range (°C): 11.054 - 12.348

Nitrate (umol/L): 4.729 - 7.251

Salinity (PPS): 35.008 - 35.363

Oxygen (ml/l): 6.095 - 6.346

Phosphate (umol/l): 0.335 - 0.501

Silicate (umol/l): 2.311 - 3.727
 
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 This species grows on rocks and as an epiphyte on seaweeds such as Laminaria in the lower littoral and sublittoral.
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Epilithic in low littoral rock pools and sublittoral to 33 m.
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Source: Encyclopedia of Marine Life of Britain and Ireland

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Heterosiphonia plumosa

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 1
Species With Barcodes: 1
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