Overview

Brief Summary

Aularches miliaris, Linn.

Gryllus miliaris, Linn., Syst. Nat. (ed. X), 1, 432 (1758).
Phymaetus punctatus, Fab. ; Green, Perad. Circ. I, No. 9 (1898).
Aularches miliaris, Green, Perad. Circ. Ill, No. 16 ; Lefroy, Ind. Ins, Life, pp. 83-84

Distribution. — Shevaroys, Nilgiris, Vizagapatam and Coimbatore.

Lifehistory. — Eggs are laid in a mass in the ground in a hole, dug by the female, about 3 inches deep and half an inch in diameter. The grasshoppers usually collect in one place for coupling and egg-laying, the latter usually taking place under shade. The eggs hatch after about five months and the young hoppers take about five months to attain full growth.

Foodplants. — Coconut, Coffee, Erythrina.

Status. — This insect does little damage as a rule although often common in Coffee Districts.

Control-— The habit of the adults to congregate for the purpose of pairing and ovipositing may be utilized to destroy them in large numbers. The young hoppers on first hatching may also be collected and destroyed before they have time to do harm.

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Aularches miliaris, L. 
Kirby, F. I. Acrid., pp. 168-169 ; S. Ind. Ins. p. 526, f. 418 ; Proc. Second Entl . Meeting, pp. 28, 77, 200. 
Aul. punctatus, Drury ; Kby., F. I. Acrid., pp. 169-170, f. 112.
Aul. scabiosae, Fb. ; Kby., F. I Acrid., p. 170.

Recorded from Nepal, Sikkim, Orissa, Bombay, Coonoor, Ceylon. We have it from the Shevaroys, Nilgiris, Vizagapatam and Coimbatore. It is found on coffee, coconut and Erythrina, but does little damage as a rule. According to Green, the form scabiosae has been found at Veyangoda (Ceylon) defoliating Erythrina, areca-nut, coconut and various shade trees. We have specimens of punctatus from Burdwan, on jute ; and Lashio (Upper Burma).

Kirby splits this up into three species, miliaris, punctatus and scabiosae, but it seems impossible to separate them satisfactorily.

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Comprehensive Description

Genus Aularches.

Aularches, Stål, Oefv. Vet.-Akad. Forli. xxx (4), 1873, pl. 51

Type, Gryllus (Locusta) miliaris, L.

Range. Indian Region.

Size large, body stout, pronotum tuberculate, wings large, coloured. Head large, smooth ; scutellum of the vertex very short, triangular, contracting uninterruptedly into a narrow sulcated frontal ridge ceasing below the antennae ; lateral carinae very distinct, running within the eyes, and slightly divergent to the extremity of the clypeus, which is broad and truncated. Antennae rather long, placed between the eyes, and composed of a number of long joints. Pronotum strongly tuberculate above, with two large contiguous humps in front, cut by the three sulci, the last sulcus placed about the middle, the hinder area rugose and deeply pitted at the sides ; deflexed lobes rounded behind. Tegmina long, moderately broad, subparallel-sided, obtusely rounded behind, with callous spots ; wings membranous, opaque, as long as the tegmina, and moderately broad. Abdomen slightly compressed, legs long and slender. Hind femora unarmed, and only slightly thickened.

The forms below are regarded by some authors as varieties of one species.

Key to the Species.

1 (2) Head pale ..........................................................miliaris, L., p. 168. 
2 (1) Head black. 
3 (4) Front humps of pronotum black ................. punctatus, Drury, p.169.
4 (3) Front humps of pronotum yellow .................scabiosae, F., p. 170.

200. Aularches miliaris, L.

Gryllus {Locusta) miliaris, Linnaeus, Syst. Nat. (ed. x.) i, 1758, p. 432 ; Linnaeus, Mus. Lud. Ulric. 1764, p. 142.
Acrydium verrucosum, DeGeer, Mém. Ins. iii, 1773, p. 486, pl. xl, fig. 6. 
Gryllus {Locusta) scabiosus, Stoll {nec Fabr.), Spectres, Saut. 1813, p. 18, pl. 76, fig. 24.
Gryllus {Locusta) conspercus, Stoll, op. cit. 1813, p. 40, pl. 226, fig. 85.
Aularches miliaris, Stål, Recens. Orth. i, 1873, p. 18.

Head yellowish, or more or less mottled with brown above ; pronotum yellow on the sides, generally with at least the spines and hinder area black. Frontal lobe with two large rounded contiguous elevations in front, black, or rarely pale ; the space between the sulci with several strong pointed conical tubercles on each side ; the hinder lobe very rugose, deeply pitted, and rounded behind, with a row of short spines on the margin, not close together. Tegmina light brown, very thickly reticulated with yellow nervures, and with a variable number of large and small callous yellow spots ; wings purplish brown, darkest towards the base. Legs yellowish, slightly mottled with darker or veined with black ; hind knees marked with black on the sides. Abdomen black, with narrow yellow incisions, and a row of yellow spots on the back before the incisions, and the apex yellow ; on the under surface the transverse bands are small, but there are no yellow spots in addition.

Length 35-52 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 68-100 mm.
Nepal; Sikkim ; Madras: Coonoor ; Ceylon; Java.

201. Aularches punctatus, Drury.

Gryllus (Locusta) punctatus, Drury, Ill. Exot. Ent. ii, 1773, pl. xli, fig. 4.

Body almost entirely shining black above ; a broad yellow band running across the face below the antennae and across the sides of the pronotum; abdomen more or less banded with yellow or reddish, at least towards the extremity and on the sides, and the sternum and abdomen beneath mostly red ; abdomen and legs black, hind femora sometimes yellowish ; tegmina light brown or olive-brown, thickly reticulated with yellow, with numerous yellow callous spots ; wings purplish brown, subhyaline, darkest towards the base. Tubercles of pronotum less prominent than in A. miliaris.

Length 42-60 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 64-110 mm.

Tibet ; Kashmir ; Nepal ; United Provinces : Garhwal ; Malay States ; Java.

The immature insect has short yellow wings.

202. Aularches scabiosae, F.

Gryllus scabiosae, Fabricius, Ent. Syst. ii, 1793, p. 51.

Shining black, with a broad yellow band across the head and sides of the pronotum, as in the last species. Pronotum with the front, including the large rounded tubercles, yellow, and the hind border, which is not very strongly dentated, also yellow. Abdomen broadly banded with red both above and below, except sometimes on the basal half above. Tegmina brown or greenish, with numerous yellow callous spots. Wings purplish brown, subhyaline towards the extremity ; sometimes with a few indistinct yellow spots.

Length 44-60 mm. ; expanse of tegmina, 80-100 mm.

Bengal : Orissa ; Bombay ; Ceylon ; Cambodia.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Aularches miliaris

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

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Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Aularches miliaris

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

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Wikipedia

Aularches miliaris

Aularches miliaris is a colorful grasshopper belonging to the family Pyrgomorphidae found in South and Southeast Asia. The bright warning colours keep away predators and their defence when disturbed includes the ejection of a toxic foam.[1][2]

The insect has been called by a variety of names including Coffee locust, Ghost Grasshopper, Northern Spotted Grasshopper, or Foam Grasshopper and enjoys some popularity as a pet insect.

Description[edit]

The head and thorax are dark green with a canary-yellow band on the side. The tegmina are green with many yellow spots; the legs are blue, with a yellow serrated pattern on the hind femora. The abdomen is black with bright red bands.[1] Two subspecies have been designated, the nominate and pseudopunctatus.

Habits[edit]

It swarms in October, the mating and egg-laying season, collecting on bushes and grasses. It is heavy and sluggish, able to make only short leaps, very visible on vegetation.[1] Outbreaks leading to their damage to cultivated crops are uncommon.[3]

When A. miliaris (of either sex) is disturbed or grabbed, it emits a sharp rasping noise from its thoracic segments. If its thorax is pinched, it also squirts a clear viscous mucus with unpleasant smell and a bitter taste, faintly alkaline, with many embedded bubbles. This foam comes out as a strong jet from apertures in the thorax, and more gently from other openings in the body (ten in total); it heaps up around the insect and partly covers it.[1]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Hingston, RWG (1927). "The liquid-squirting habit of oriental grasshoppers". Transactions of the Entomological Society of London 75: 65–69. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2311.1927.tb00060.x. 
  2. ^ (2013) Aularches miliaris miliaris (Linnaeus, 1758) from Orthoptera Species File (OSF) Online. Accessed on 2013-01-29.
  3. ^ Jones, S (1940). "A Visitation of the Spotted Locust (Aularches miliaris L.) in Travancore.". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society 41 (3): 676–678. 
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