Overview

Brief Summary

North American Ecology (US and Canada)

Enodia anthedon is resident to the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada (Scott 1986). Habitats are woods, often in shady areas. Host plants are multiple species of grasses. Individuals overwinter as third and fourth instar larvae. There is one flight each year in the northern part of their range, with the approximate flight time late June- early Aug., and two flights in the southern part of their range, between late May and early Sept. (Scott 1986). Some sources synonymize this species with Lethe anthedon (Scott 1986).
  • Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press.
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Comprehensive Description

General Description

This medium sized butterfly has a wingspan of 45-67 mm and black antennal clubs. Dorsal wing surface is purplish brown and there are dark eyespots on both the fore and hindwings. Ventral wing is also purplish brown. The ventral forewing has a row of four black spots that are aligned with each other, the spots are surrounded by diffuse white and have white pupils. It can be distinguished from other satyrids in Alberta by its purplish brown colour, the presence of large eyespots, and the angled hindwing margin. The short, barrel-shaped eggs are green (Bird et al., 1995). Larvae have green yellow heads with red-tipped horns. Their bodies are yellowish green with green and yellow stripes. They also have a cleft tail tipped with pink (Bird et al., 1995). Pupae are green with cream-coloured heads (Bird et al., 1995).
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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Eastern and midwestern US and Canada.

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Recent records from central Alberta suggest that E. anthedon may be extending its range (Alberta Natural Heritage Information Centre, 2002). Its Canadian range extends east from Central Alberta to Nova Scotia (Layberry et al., 1998; Opler et al., 1995). In the United States, it is found south from the Canadian border to central Alabama and Mississippi and from Nebraska eastward (Opler et al., 1995).
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Physical Description

Type Information

Type for Enodia portlandia anthedon Clark
Catalog Number: USNM
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology
Locality: Lava, sull. Co., N.Y, Sullivan, New York, United States
  • Type:
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Local in mesic to wet woods, often near streams in hilly regions. Ocassionally found in xeric wooded barrens. Occasionally seen in open shrub swamps but apparently only strays from nearby woods.

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A shade-loving butterfly found in poplar woods near streams and lakes in East Central Alberta.
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Unknown for Alberta. In the United States, larval host plants include: white grass (Leersia virginica), bearded shorthusk (Brachyelytrum erectum), False Melic Grass (Schizachne pupurascens), plumegrass (Erianthus), broadleaf uniola (Uniola latifolia), and bottlebrush (Hystrix patula) (Acorn 1993; Opler et al. 1995; Layberry et al. 1998; enature 2000). Adults feed on dung, fungi, carrion, mud, and sap from willows, poplars, and birch (Opler et al. 1995).
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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

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Global Abundance

10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Adults feed on sap, dung, fungi, carrion, and mud but not flower nectar. Males both perch and patrol for females (Scott, 1986).
  • Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press.
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Cyclicity

Adults fly from June to mid July.
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Life Cycle

The Northern Pearly-eye is univoltine and overwinter as larvae (Bird et al., 1995). Males perch on tree trunks or vegetation up to 10 feet above ground at edges of clearings to wait for females (Opler et al., 1995). Females lay eggs singly on the host plant (Opler et al., 1995).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Enodia anthedon

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.

Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

AAAGATATTGGAACTTTATATTTTATTTTTGGAATTTGAGCAGGAATAGTTGGAACATCCTTA---AGTCTTATTATTCGAACAGAACTAGGTAATCCAGGATTTTTAATTGGAGAT---GATCAAATTTATAATACTATTGTTACAGCTCATGCCTTTATTATAATTTTTTTTATAGTTATACCTATTATAATTGGAGGATTTGGAAATTGATTAATCCCTCTTATA---TTAGGAGCCCCTGACATAGCATTCCCTCGAATAAATAACATAAGATTTTGACTTTTACCCCCTTCACTAATTCTTTTAATTTCAAGTAGTATCGTAGAAAATGGAGCAGGAACAGGATGAACAGTTTACCCTCCTCTTTCATCTAATATTGCTCATGGTGGATCATCAGTTGACTTA---GCAATTTTCTCATTACATTTAGCTGGTATTTCATCAATTTTAGGAGCTATTAATTTTATTACTACAATTATTAATATACGGGTTAATAATATATCTTATGATCAAATACCTTTATTTGTATGAGCTGTTGGAATTACTGCTTTATTACTTCTTCTATCTTTACCTGTTTTAGCAGGA---GCTATCACAATACTTTTAACAGATCGTAATTTAAATACTTCTTTTTTCGATCCTGCAGGAGGAGGAGATCCTATTTTATATCAACATTTATTTTGATTTTTTGGNCAT------------------------------------------------ATTATTTCTCAAGAAAGAGGAAAAAAA---GAAACTTTTGGATGTTTAGGAATAATTTATGCCATATTAGCTATTGGATTATTAGGATTTATTGTTTGAGCTCATCATATATTTACTGTAGGAATAGATATTGATACTCGAGCTTACTTTACTTCAGCTACTATAATTATTGCTGTTCCCACAGGAATTAAAATTTTTAGCTGATTA---GCAACTCTTCATGGAA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Enodia anthedon

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 23
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: While this is still a very widespread, and in some places still common, butterfly, considering the large-scale changes to forest habitats being caused by exotic plants and/or out of control deer in most of its range, a rank of G4 was in place for a few years. However, this species seems to be holding its own in deer-ravaged forests as long as some grasses remain. Adults do no need nectar flowers and may not need shrubs for cover. Perhaps more importantly, Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium) is now a foodplant, apparently the main one in parts of New Jersey where this butterfly seems more common than in the past.

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Extremely rare in Alberta; provincial rank S1 and "Status Undetermined" because of few records.
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Threats

Degree of Threat: D : Unthreatened throughout its range, communities may be threatened in minor portions of the range or degree of variation falls within natural variation

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Management

Global Protection: Many to very many (13 to >40) occurrences appropriately protected and managed

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Wikipedia

Enodia anthedon

The Northern Pearly-eye (Enodia anthedon) is a species of Satyrinae that occurs in North America,[2] where it is found from central Saskatchewan and eastern Nebraska east to Nova Scotia, south to central Alabama and Mississippi.[3]

Larva

The wingspan is 43–67 mm.[3][4] The upperside is brown with dark eyespots and the underside is brown. Adults feed on dung, fungi, carrion and sap from willows, poplars, and birches.

The larvae feed on various grasses, including Leersia virginica, Erianthus species, Muhlenbergia sp., Bearded Shortgrass (Brachyelytrum erectum), Uniola latifolia, Bottlebrush Grass (Hystrix patula), and False Melic Grass (Schizachne purpurascens).[4]

The species overwinters in the larval stage.

Subspecies[edit]

Similar species[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "BMNA Species Detail Northern Pearly Eye". Retrieved 2009-05-19. 
  2. ^ "Species Enodia anthedon - Northern Pearly-Eye - BugGuide.net". Retrieved 2008-11-20. 
  3. ^ a b Enodia anthedon, Butterflies and Moths of North America
  4. ^ a b Northern Pearly-eye, Butterflies of Canada


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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: The use of Lethe over Enodia follows Pelham (2008), and was based on Chermock (1947), Lesse (1957) and Scott (1986).

Modern authors have generally not recognized subspecies but observations by Grkovich and Pavulaan (2003) in the contact areas suggest there may be some ecological and behaviors differences as well as the usual minor maculation features. However their report of "subspecies" borealis from high elevation North Carolina is premature and obviously needs verification, including actual specimens. The purported color difference is not obvious from the photograph (and might not be completely accurate in a photograph) and the pale band enclosing the eyespots is well within the range of variation of anthedon. The behavioral observations are subject to interpretation. There are no supporting specimens. Both "subspecies" are widespread and not rare.

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