Overview

Brief Summary

North American Ecology (US and Canada)

Enodia anthedon is resident to the northeastern United States and southeastern Canada (Scott 1986). Habitats are woods, often in shady areas. Host plants are multiple species of grasses. Individuals overwinter as third and fourth instar larvae. There is one flight each year in the northern part of their range, with the approximate flight time late June- early Aug., and two flights in the southern part of their range, between late May and early Sept. (Scott 1986). Some sources synonymize this species with Lethe anthedon (Scott 1986).
  • Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Leslie Ries

Partner Web Site: North American Butterfly Knowledge Network

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) Eastern and midwestern US and Canada.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Physical Description

Type Information

Type for Enodia portlandia anthedon Clark
Catalog Number: USNM
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology
Locality: Lava, sull. Co., N.Y, Sullivan, New York, United States
  • Type:
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Entomology

Source: National Museum of Natural History Collections

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Local in mesic to wet woods, often near streams in hilly regions. Ocassionally found in xeric wooded barrens. Occasionally seen in open shrub swamps but apparently only strays from nearby woods.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 81 to >300

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Global Abundance

10,000 to >1,000,000 individuals

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Adults feed on sap, dung, fungi, carrion, and mud but not flower nectar. Males both perch and patrol for females (Scott, 1986).
  • Scott, J. A. 1986. The butterflies of North America. Stanford University Press.
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Leslie Ries

Partner Web Site: North American Butterfly Knowledge Network

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Enodia anthedon

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

AAAGATATTGGAACTTTATATTTTATTTTTGGAATTTGAGCAGGAATAGTTGGAACATCCTTA---AGTCTTATTATTCGAACAGAACTAGGTAATCCAGGATTTTTAATTGGAGAT---GATCAAATTTATAATACTATTGTTACAGCTCATGCCTTTATTATAATTTTTTTTATAGTTATACCTATTATAATTGGAGGATTTGGAAATTGATTAATCCCTCTTATA---TTAGGAGCCCCTGACATAGCATTCCCTCGAATAAATAACATAAGATTTTGACTTTTACCCCCTTCACTAATTCTTTTAATTTCAAGTAGTATCGTAGAAAATGGAGCAGGAACAGGATGAACAGTTTACCCTCCTCTTTCATCTAATATTGCTCATGGTGGATCATCAGTTGACTTA---GCAATTTTCTCATTACATTTAGCTGGTATTTCATCAATTTTAGGAGCTATTAATTTTATTACTACAATTATTAATATACGGGTTAATAATATATCTTATGATCAAATACCTTTATTTGTATGAGCTGTTGGAATTACTGCTTTATTACTTCTTCTATCTTTACCTGTTTTAGCAGGA---GCTATCACAATACTTTTAACAGATCGTAATTTAAATACTTCTTTTTTCGATCCTGCAGGAGGAGGAGATCCTATTTTATATCAACATTTATTTTGATTTTTTGGNCAT------------------------------------------------ATTATTTCTCAAGAAAGAGGAAAAAAA---GAAACTTTTGGATGTTTAGGAATAATTTATGCCATATTAGCTATTGGATTATTAGGATTTATTGTTTGAGCTCATCATATATTTACTGTAGGAATAGATATTGATACTCGAGCTTACTTTACTTCAGCTACTATAATTATTGCTGTTCCCACAGGAATTAAAATTTTTAGCTGATTA---GCAACTCTTCATGGAA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Enodia anthedon

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 23
Species With Barcodes: 1
Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 (CC BY 3.0)

© Barcode of Life Data Systems

Source: Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD)

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5 - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

Reasons: While this is still a very widespread, and in some places still common, butterfly, considering the large-scale changes to forest habitats being caused by exotic plants and/or out of control deer in most of its range, a rank of G4 was in place for a few years. However, this species seems to be holding its own in deer-ravaged forests as long as some grasses remain. Adults do no need nectar flowers and may not need shrubs for cover. Perhaps more importantly, Japanese stiltgrass (Microstegium) is now a foodplant, apparently the main one in parts of New Jersey where this butterfly seems more common than in the past.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Threats

Degree of Threat: D : Unthreatened throughout its range, communities may be threatened in minor portions of the range or degree of variation falls within natural variation

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Management

Global Protection: Many to very many (13 to >40) occurrences appropriately protected and managed

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Wikipedia

Enodia anthedon

The Northern Pearly-eye (Enodia anthedon) is a species of Satyrinae that occurs in North America,[2] where it is found from central Saskatchewan and eastern Nebraska east to Nova Scotia, south to central Alabama and Mississippi.[3]

Larva

The wingspan is 43–67 mm.[4][3] The upperside is brown with dark eyespots and the underside is brown. Adults feed on dung, fungi, carrion and sap from willows, poplars, and birches.

The larvae feed on various grasses, including Leersia virginica, Erianthus species, Muhlenbergia sp., Bearded Shortgrass (Brachyelytrum erectum), Uniola latifolia, Bottlebrush Grass (Hystrix patula), and False Melic Grass (Schizachne purpurascens).[4]

The species overwinters in the larval stage.

Subspecies[edit]

  • Enodia anthedon anthedon
  • Enodia anthedon borealis Clark, 1936 (Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, Maine)

Similar species[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "BMNA Species Detail Northern Pearly Eye". Retrieved 2009-05-19. 
  2. ^ "Species Enodia anthedon - Northern Pearly-Eye - BugGuide.net". Retrieved 2008-11-20. 
  3. ^ a b Enodia anthedon, Butterflies and Moths of North America
  4. ^ a b Northern Pearly-eye, Butterflies of Canada
Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike 3.0 (CC BY-SA 3.0)

Source: Wikipedia

Unreviewed

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: The use of Lethe over Enodia follows Pelham (2008), and was based on Chermock (1947), Lesse (1957) and Scott (1986).

Modern authors have generally not recognized subspecies but observations by Grkovich and Pavulaan (2003) in the contact areas suggest there may be some ecological and behaviors differences as well as the usual minor maculation features. However their report of "subspecies" borealis from high elevation North Carolina is premature and obviously needs verification, including actual specimens. The purported color difference is not obvious from the photograph (and might not be completely accurate in a photograph) and the pale band enclosing the eyespots is well within the range of variation of anthedon. The behavioral observations are subject to interpretation. There are no supporting specimens. Both "subspecies" are widespread and not rare.

Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 (CC BY-NC 3.0)

© NatureServe

Source: NatureServe

Trusted

Article rating from 0 people

Default rating: 2.5 of 5

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!