Green Lacewings are found around the world. There are about 90 species in the United States, and probably about 30 species in Michigan.
Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); palearctic (Native ); oriental (Native ); ethiopian (Native ); neotropical (Native )
Adult Green Lacewings are small to medium-sized insects (10-20 mm). They are bright green, with soft skinny bodies and large wings that fold over their back like roof on a house. They often have golden eyes. The larvae are also long, with an large sharp mandibles, bumpy skin, and and long strips of brown or grey on a lighter background. Often it's tail lashes and moves as it hunts.
Other Physical Features: ectothermic ; bilateral symmetry
These predators are found in vegetation, especially forest and grassland.
Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial
Terrestrial Biomes: taiga ; chaparral ; forest ; rainforest ; scrub forest
Both adult and larval lacewings eat Aphididae and other small, soft-bodied Insecta and Acari on plants. They also sometimes take nectar from flowers, but they are mainly predators.
Some green lacewings can hear the calls of bats, and when they do they drop out of the air and land immediately. They are active at night to avoid the attention of birds. The larvae appear to have a chemical defense, but little is known of this.
Life History and Behavior
Communication and Perception
Probably mainly by scent and hearing, perhaps also visually. Males and females sing "duets", calling back and forth to each other during courtship.
Active larvae emerge from eggs and start to hunt. This group has complete metamorphosis, so after the larva has grown and molted several times, it spins a cocoon under a leaf and pupates, emerging as a winged adult later.
Development - Life Cycle: metamorphosis
Probably about one year.
After mating, females lay dozens to hundreds of small eggs underneath leaves, each stuck on the end of a fine hairlike shaft that keeps it up off the surface of the leaf. They lay their eggs on plants with infestations of aphids to serve as food for the hatchlings.
Breeding season: summer
Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; sexual
Parental Investment: no parental involvement
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage
|Specimen Records:||1,075||Public Records:||285|
|Specimens with Sequences:||973||Public Species:||78|
|Specimens with Barcodes:||912||Public BINs:||12|
|Species With Barcodes:||90|
No species (that we know of) are endangered.
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Economic Importance for Humans: Positive
Lacewings are important for the control of aphids and other small pest insects on plants. Species in this group are sold to gardeners and farmers for release onto their plants.
Positive Impacts: controls pest population
Green lacewings are insects in the large family Chrysopidae of the order Neuroptera. There are about 85 genera and (differing between sources) 1,300–2,000 species in this widespread group. Members of the genera Chrysopa and Chrysoperla are very common in North America and Europe; they are very similar and many of their species have been moved from one genus to the other time and again, and in the non-scientific literature assignment to Chrysopa and Chrysoperla can rarely be relied upon. Since they are the most familiar neuropterans to many people, they are often simply called "lacewings". Since most of the diversity of Neuroptera are properly referred to as some sort of "lacewing", common lacewings is preferable.
Description and ecology
Green lacewings are delicate insects with a wingspan of 6 to over 65 mm, though the largest forms are tropical. They are characterized by a wide costal field in their wing venation, which includes the cross-veins. The bodies are usually bright green to greenish-brown, and the compound eyes are conspicuously golden in many species. The wings are usually translucent with a slight iridescence; some have green wing veins or a cloudy brownish wing pattern. The vernacular name "stinkflies", used chiefly for Chrysopa species but also for others (e.g. Cunctochrysa) refers to their ability to release a vile smell from paired prothoracal glands when handled.
Adults have tympanal organs at the forewings' base, enabling them to hear well. Some Chrysopa show evasive behavior when they hear a bat's ultrasound calls: when in flight, they close their wings (making their echolocational signature smaller) and drop down to the ground. Green lacewings also use substrate or body vibrations as a form of communication between themselves, especially during courtship. Species which are nearly identical morphologically may sometimes be separated more easily based on their mating signals. For example the southern European Chrysoperla mediterranea looks almost identical to its northern relative C. carnea (Common Green Lacewing), but their courtship "songs" are very different; individuals of one species will not react to the other's vibrations.
Adults are crepuscular or nocturnal. They feed on pollen, nectar and honeydew supplemented with mites, aphids and other small arthropods, and some, namely Chrysopa, are mainly predatory. Others feed almost exclusively on nectar and similar substances, and have symbiotic yeasts in their digestive tract to help break down the food into nutrients.
Larvae have either a more slender "humpbacked" shape with a prominent bulge on the thorax, or are plumper, with long bristles jutting out from the sides. These bristles will collect debris and food remains – the empty integuments of aphids, most notably – that provide camouflage from birds.
Eggs are deposited at night, singly or in small groups; one female produces some 100–200 eggs. Eggs are placed on plants, usually where aphids are present nearby in numbers. Each egg is hung on a slender stalk about 1 cm long, usually on the underside of a leaf. Immediately after hatching, the larvae moult, then ascend the egg stalk to feed. They are voracious predators, attacking most insects of suitable size, especially soft-bodied ones (aphids, caterpillars and other insect larvae, insect eggs, and at high population densities also each other). Therefore, the larvae are colloquially known as "aphid lions" (also spelled "aphidlions") or "aphid wolves", similar to the related antlions. Their senses are weakly developed, except that they are very sensitive to touch. Walking around in a haphazard fashion, the larvae sway their heads from one side to the other, and when they strike a potential prey object, the larva grasps it. Their maxillae are hollow, allowing a digestive secretion to be injected in the prey; the organs of an aphid can for example be dissolved by this in 90 seconds. Depending on environmental conditions, larvae need about 1–3 weeks to pupation which takes place in a cocoon; species from temperate regions usually overwinter as a prepupa, though C. carnea overwinters as newly hatched adults.
Use in biological pest control
While depending on species and environmental conditions, some green lacewings will eat only about 150 prey items in their entire life, in other cases 100 aphids will be eaten in a single week. Thus, in several countries, millions of such voracious Chrysopidae are reared for sale as biological control agents of insect and mite pests in agriculture and gardens. They are distributed as eggs, since as noted above they are highly aggressive and cannibalistic in confined quarters; the eggs hatch in the field. Their performance is variable; thus, there is a lot of interest in further research to improve the use of green lacewings as biological pest control. Species that have hitherto attracted wider study and are more or less readily available as captive-bred eggs to deposit out for hatching in pest-infested plant cultures are several members of Chrysoperla as well as Mallada signatus.
Gardeners can attract these lacewings – and therefore ensure a steady supply of larvae – by using certain companion plants and tolerating beneficial weeds. Chrysopidae are attracted mainly by Asteraceae – e.g. calliopsis (Coreopsis), cosmos (Cosmos), sunflowers (Helianthus) and dandelion (Taraxacum) – and Apiaceae such as dill (Anethum) or angelica (Angelica).
Systematics and taxonomy
For long, green lacewings were considered close relatives of the pleasing lacewings (Dilaridae) and brown lacewings (Hemerobiidae) and placed in the superfamily Hemerobioidea. But this grouping does not appear to be natural and misled most significantly by the supposed hemerobioideans' plesiomorphic larvae. Today, the Hemerobioidea are usually considered monotypic, containing only the brown lacewings; the green lacewings seem to be very closely related to the osmylids (Osmylidae), which have much more advanced larvae superficially resembling those of the spongillaflies (Sisyridae) with which the spongillaflies were thus formerly allied. Thus the superfamily Osmyloidea – also monotypic following the spongillaflies' removal from there – is the closest living relative of green lacewings; some Mesozoic taxa have been placed in families even closer to Chrysopidae (Ascalochrysidae and Mesochrysopidae) and united with these to superfamily Chrysopoidea.
Subfamily Apochrysinae Handlirsch, 1908
- Apochrysa (including Anapochrysa, Lauraya, Nacaura, Oligochrysa, Synthochrysa)
- Joguina – includes Lainius
- Loyola (including Claverina)
- Almost 60 genera, see article.
Subfamily Nothochrysinae Navas, 1910
- Sinochrysa Yang, 1992 (Nothochrysinae?)
- Tibetochrysa Yang, 1988 (Chrysopinae?)
- Xanthochrysa Yang & Yang, 1991 (Chrysopinae?)
- Yunchrysopa Yang & Wang, 1994 (Chrysopinae?)
Compared to other Neuroptera, which have an extensive, sometimes extremely abundant, fossil record, green lacewings are not known from that many fossils, and these are not generally well-studied. Their prehistoric relatives mentioned above, however, indicate that at least the basal radiation of the Chrysopoidea must have happened in the Jurassic already, if not earlier.
- Engel & Grimaldi (2007)
- Henry et al. (1999)
- New (2002)
- See references in Haaramo (2008)
- Winterton & Brooks (2002)
- This article draws heavily on the corresponding article in the German-language Wikipedia.
- Engel, Michael S. & Grimaldi, David A. (2007): The neuropterid fauna of Dominican and Mexican amber (Neuropterida, Megaloptera, Neuroptera). American Museum Novitates 3587: 1–58. PDF fulltext
- Haaramo, Mikko (2008): Mikko's Phylogeny Archive: Neuroptera. Version of 2008-MAR-11. Retrieved 2008-APR-27.
- New, T. R. (2002): Prospects for extending the use of Australian lacewings in biological control. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae 48(Supplement 2): 209–216. PDF fulltext
- Winterton, S. L. & Brooks, S. J. (2002): Phylogeny of the apochrysine green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae: Apochrysinae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 95(1): 16–28. doi:10.1603/0013-8746(2002)095[0016:POTAGL]2.0.CO;2 PDF fulltext
|This article includes a list of references, but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. (January 2011)|
- Brooks, S. J. & Barnard. P. C. (1990): The green lacewings of the world: a generic review (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Bulletin of the British Museum of Natural History (Entomology) 59(2): 117–286.
- Penny, N. D.; Adams, P. A.; Stange, L. A. (1997): Species Catalog of the Neuroptera, Megaloptera, and Raphidioptera of America North of Mexico. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences 50(3): 39–114.
- Tauber, C. A. (2004): A systematic review of the genus Leucochrysa (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) in the United States. Annals of the Entomological Society of America 97(6): 1129–1158. doi:10.1603/0013-8746(2004)097[1129:ASROTG]2.0.CO;2 HTML abstract
- Winterton, S. L. (1995): A new genus and species of Apochrysinae (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) from Australia, with a checklist of Australian Chrysopidae. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society 34(2): 139–145. doi:10.1111/j.1440-6055.1995.tb01306.x (HTML abstract)