Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

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Global Range: Mexico (Guadelupe Island, Baja California, and Baja California Sur); United States (California to Washington) Sharp et al. 1994).

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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants to 10 × 3 mm. Stem unbranched and branched; axillary hyaline nodules absent; central strand present or absent. Leaves as many as 20 pairs, elliptic to broadly lanceolate to oblong-lingulate, acute, short-acuminate to obtuse-apiculate, to 2 × 0.5 mm; dorsal lamina narrowed proximally, ending before insertion to ± decurrent; vaginant laminae 2/3-3/4 leaf length, equal; margin ± entire but usually serrulate distally, limbate on all laminae, limbidium usually ending a few cells before apex, frequently edged by 1-2 rows of quadrate to oblong chlorophyllose cells in proximal parts of vaginant laminae, limbidial cells 1-2-stratose; costa percurrent to ending 2-5 cells before leaf, infrequently short-excurrent, bryoides-type; laminal cells 1-stratose, smooth, strongly bulging, densely chlorophyllose, ± obscure, firm-walled, irregularly quadrate to hexagonal, usually arranged in discernable rows in distal part of leaf, 6-10 µm, twice as deep as wide. Sexual condition gonioautoicous and rhizautoicous. Sporophytes 1-2 per perichaetium. Seta to 9 mm. Capsule theca exserted, inclined, bilaterally symmetric to erect, radially symmetric, to 1 mm; peristome bryoides-type; operculum 0.5 mm. Calyptra cucullate, smooth, 0.8 mm. Spores 10-16 µm.
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Description

Plants 0.5-7.5 × 0.3 mm. Stem unbranched; axillary hyaline nodules absent; central strand present or absent. Leaves as many as 12 pairs, lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, occasionally narrowly lanceolate, acute to rarely apiculate, to 1.2 × 0.2-0.3 mm; dorsal lamina narrowed prox-imally, ending at or sometimes before insertion; vaginant laminae 1/2 leaf length, ± equal, minor lamina ending on or near margin; margin entire but serrulate to denticulate distally, limbate on all laminae, limbidium ending a few to several cells before leaf apex, not reaching proximal end of dorsal lamina, sometimes edged by 1 or more rows of quadrate cells in proximal part of vaginant laminae, limbidial cells 1-stratose; costa ending a few cells before apex to percurrent, bryoides-type; laminal cells 1-stratose, smooth, strongly bulging, ± obscure, firm-walled, irregularly quadrate to hexagonal, mostly 6.5-10 µm, in transverse section twice as deep as wide. Sexual condition rhizautoicous. Sporophytes 1-2 per perichaetium. Seta 1-4.5 mm. Capsule theca exserted, usually erect, radially symmetric, 0.2-0.8 mm; peristome bryoides-type; operculum 0.3 mm. Calyptra cucullate, smooth, 0.5 mm. Spores 10-16 µm.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Fissidens limbatus Sullivant; F. limbatus var. brevifolius (Cardot & Thériot) Grout; F. limbatus var. ensiformis Grout; F. pusillus var. brevifolius Cardot & Thériot; F. repandus Wilson; F. tortilis Hampe & Müller Hal.
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Type Information

Isotype for Fissidens pusillus var. brevifolius Cardot in Thér.
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): H. E. Hasse
Year Collected: 1902
Locality: Soldiers Home., Los Angeles, California, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Thériot, M. H. I. 1904. Bot. Gaz. 37: 365.
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Type collection for Fissidens minutulus Sull.
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): Collector unknown
Locality: Around San Felix., Chiriquí, Panama, Central America
  • Type collection: Sullivant, W. S. 1846. Musci Allegh. 44.
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Syntype for Fissidens longidecurrens Thér.
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): Bro. G. Arsène
Year Collected: 1911
Locality: Vicinity of Morelia., Michoacán, Mexico, North America
  • Syntype: Thériot, M. H. I. 1926. Smithsonian Misc. Collect. 78: 10.
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Holotype for Fissidens flexuosus Thér.
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): Bro. G. Arsène
Year Collected: 1911
Locality: Vicinity of Morelia., Michoacán, Mexico, North America
  • Holotype: Thériot, M. H. I. 1928. Smithsonian Misc. Collect. 78: 11.
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Syntype for Fissidens longidecurrens Thér.
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Original publication and alleged type specimen examined
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): Bro. G. Arsène
Year Collected: 1911
Locality: Vicinity of Morelia., Michoacán, Mexico, North America
  • Syntype: Thériot, M. H. I. 1926. Smithsonian Misc. Collect. 78: 10.
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Syntype for Fissidens reclinatulus var. brevifolius Cardot
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. G. Pringle
Year Collected: 1908
Locality: Barranca, near Guadalajara., Mexico, Central America
Elevation (m): 1372 to 1372
  • Syntype: Cardot, J. 1909. Rev. Bryol. 36: 69.
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Syntype for Fissidens pringlei Cardot
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): C. G. Pringle
Year Collected: 1908
Locality: Canada above Contreras Valley at Mexico., Distrito Federal, Mexico, North America
Elevation (m): 2591 to 2591
  • Syntype: Cardot, J. 1909. Rev. Bryol. 36: 69.
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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: On soil at elevations up to about 1000m (Sharp et al. 1994).

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

Reasons: From Baja California Sur to Washington state at elevations up to 1000m.

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Notes

Comments

Three species belong to the Fissidens crispus complex; F. crispus, F. minutulus, and F. sublimbatus. A well-developed limbidium and small (6-10 µm), bulging, obscure laminal cells that in transverse section are twice as deep as wide characterize all three.

Fissidens crispus, better known in western North America as F. limbatus, is highly variable and widespread, ranging widely in tropical America, where it also attains its greatest variability. It is best distinguished by laminal cells that are usually arranged in discernable rows in the distal parts of leaves. The dorsal lamina is quite variable, ending above the insertion to long-decurrent as in some tropical expressions. Leaves, when dry, are usually crispate. The limbidium is found on all or most leaves and usually extends to or ends just before the apex.

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Comments

Fissidens minutulus is often confused with an expression of F. bryoides. The two have similar habits, and both are found on rocks at edges of streams, although F. minutulus is found principally on limestone, while F. bryoides occurs mostly on acidic rocks. Moreover, the laminal cells of F. minutulus are small (6-10 µm), strongly bulging, and more or less obscure, unlike the somewhat larger, more or less plane, distinct cells of F. bryoides. In transverse section the laminal cells of F. minutulus are twice as deep as wide, while those of F. bryoides are more or less as deep as wide. Stems of F. minutulus are unbranched while those of F. bryoides are branched.
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