Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution: China, India, Korea, Japan, Central Asia, Europe, Greenland, North America, New Zealand, and North Africa.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants robust, stiff; green, pale green, yellow-green; large terminal bud; typically as loose carpets in coniferous forests. Stem green to red-brown; 2-3 superficial cortical layers. Stem leaves shorter than branch leaves, ovate-lingulate to oblong-lingulate, 1.6-1.8 × 1-1.2 mm; hyaline cells mostly nonseptate. Branches long and tapering with distinct squarrose spreading leaves, often terete in tundra forms. Branch fascicles with 2 spreading and 2-3 pendent branches. Branch stems with 1-2 layers of cortical cells. Branch leaves larger than stem leaves, 1.9-2.8 mm, conspicuously squarrose from ovate-hastate base and abruptly narrowed 1/2-1/3 distance from apex into involute-concave acumen, often terete in tundra forms; hyaline cells convex on both surfaces, non-ringed pores at ends and corners of cells, ringed pores on concave surface (4-8/cell) and nonringed pores (2-4/cell) on convex surface, internal commissural walls smooth or indistinctly papillose, chlorophyllous cells ovate triangular with widest part at or close to the convex surface. Sexual condition monoicous. Spores 17-30 µm; proximal surface finely papillose, distal surface smooth with raised bifurcated Y-mark sculpture; proximal laesura more than 0.5 spore radius.
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Description

Plants rather robust, jade green to yellowish green or yellowish brown, in loose tufts. Stem cortex in 2–4 layers, hyaline cells thin-walled, without fibrils, sometimes with large pores; central cylinder pale green or yellowish orange. Stem leaves 1.6–1.7 mm × 1.0–1.4 mm, large, ligulate, rounded obtuse, somewhat lacerate at the apex; borders narrow, indistinct; hyaline cells in the upper half broadly rhomboidal, often undivided, without fibrils and pores, sometimes divided, cells in the lower half narrowly rhomboidal, sometimes with the traces of fibrils, with large pores. Branches in fascicles of 4–5, with 2–3 spreading, stout. Branch leaves 2.0–2.3 mm × 1.0–1.2 mm, broadly ovate-lanceolate, concave, strongly squarrose and gradually narrowed to an involute-concave acumen from an erect base; margins involute, blunt and dentate at the apex; hyaline cells densely fibrillose, with small, ringed pores in the upper cells, half-elliptic pores at the opposite ends in the lower cells on the ventral surface, with a few pores at the upper corners in the upper cells, more and more pores at the opposite ends in the lower half on the dorsal surface; inner walls adjacent to green cells sometimes faintly papillose; green cells in cross section triangular to trapezoidal, exposed more broadly on the dorsal surface, also slightly exposed on the ventral surface. Dioicous; antheridial branches green; archegonial branches elongate. Perigonial leaves smaller than vegetative branch leaves. Perichaetia leaves large, broadly ligulate, concave. Spores yellowish, papillose, 22–25 µm in diameter.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Sphagnum squarrosum var. imbricatum Schimper
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Synonym

Sphagnum cymbifolium var. squarrosum (Crome) Nees & Hornsch., Bryol. Germ. 1: 11. 1823. Sphagnum teres var. squarrosum (Crome) Warnst., Eur. Torfm. 121. 1881, nom. illeg.  Sphagnum squarrosum var. subsquarrosum Russ. ex Warnst., Hedwigia 27: 271. 1888.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat: in seasonally flooded areas or on wet soil under conifers; sometimes on rotten wood in shade.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Sphagnum squarrosum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sphagnum squarrosum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Threats

Comments: Somewhat threatened by land-use conversion, habitat fragmentation, and forest management practices (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

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Wikipedia

Sphagnum squarrosum

Sphagnum squarrosum, commonly known as the crome sphagnum,[1] spiky bog-moss[2] or spreading-leaved bog moss[3] is a species of moss which grows in nutrient-rich, damp soil. Typical habitats include woodland, the banks of streams and ditches; it can even be found at high altitude in damp cirques. The species often grows near sedges (Carex), rushes (Juncus) or purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea).[2]

Sphagnum squarrosum plants are green, and have the appearance of spikiness.[2]

See also [edit]

References [edit]

  1. ^ "Sphagnum squarrosum". United States Department of Agriculture. Retrieved 16 June 2012. 
  2. ^ a b c Andy Amphlett and Sandy Payne (2010). "Sphagnum squarrosum". In I. Atherton, S. Bosanquet and M. Lawley. Mosses and Liverworts of Britain and Ireland. British Bryological Society. p. 281. ISBN 9780956131010. 
  3. ^ F. E. Tripp (1874). British Mosses, Their Homes, Aspects, Structure and Uses. George Bell and Sons. p. 63. 
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Notes

Comments

In its typical robust form with strongly squarrose branch leaves, Sphagnum squarrosum is unmistakeable. Smaller forms such as occur in the higher mountains may be difficult to identify accurately without careful examination of microscopic details. In the tundra there sometimes occur large, terete forms of S. squarrosum but these are usually considerably more robust than S. teres. See also discussion under 14. S. strictum.
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Comments

This is a common species in northeastern and southwestern China. It is characterized by having rather robust and jade green plants that frequently produce sporophytes and by having large and squarrose branch leaves.
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