Overview

Distribution

National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution: China, India, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Guinea, Australia, Europe, North, Central, and South America, and Africa.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants slender and weak-stemmed, moderate-sized, flaccid and plumose in aquatic forms to more compact in emergent forms, spreading branches often con-spicuously falcate, giving capitulum a twisted appearance; green to yellow, often tinged with red, red-brown or brown in capitula. Stems green; superficial cortex of 2-3 layers, 2 layers of enlarged thin-walled cells. Stem leaves triangular-ovate, more than 1.2 mm, usually appressed; apex acute to apiculate, hyaline cells rarely septate or porose, apical region often fibrillose. Branches mostly unranked to weakly 5-ranked, often conspicuously falcate, leaves greatly elongated at distal end. Branch fascicles with 2 spreading and 2-3 pendent branches. Branch stems green, but often pinkish at the proximal ends, with cortex enlarged with conspicuous retort cells. Branch leaves ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, 1.6-5 mm, falcate toward branch tips, when dry often undulate and recurved, rarely weakly serrulate along the margins in submerged forms, leaves from middle of spreading branches with length to width ratio less than or equal to 1:0.28; hyaline cells length to width ratio in apical convex surface region 8:1 or more, convex surface with 0-1 small round pores at apex, concave surface with faint round wall thinnings in cell apices and angles; chlorophyllous cells triangular to trapezoidal in transverse section, broadly exposed on the convex surface and exposed slightly on the concave surface. Sexual condition dioicous. Spores 29-38 µm; covered with large papillae on both surfaces, appearing pusticulate; proximal laesura less than 0.5 spore radius.
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Description

Plants slender, soft, yellowish green to brown, somewhat shiny when dry. Stem cortex in 2–3 layers, hyaline cells large, thin-walled, without fibrils; central cylinder deeply yellowish green, clearly distinguished from the cortical cells. Stem leaves 1.2–2.0 mm × 0.5–0.8 mm, oblong-triangular to isosceles-triangular, gradually acute and slightly dentate at the apex, borders narrow above, clearly widened from the middle to the base (ca. 1/3 leaf base); hyaline cells narrow, undivided, often with fibrils, sometimes with small end pores on the dorsal surface. Branches in fascicles of 4, with 2 spreading. Branch leaves 2.0–4.0 mm × 0.5–0.6 mm, slightly shiny, often undulate at margins and secund when dry, narrowly ovate-lanceolate, gradually narrowed to a blunt, dentate apex; margins bordered by a few rows of linear cells; central hyaline cells narrowly elongate-rhomboidal, with small, ringed pores at the upper corners, rarely with pores at the lower corners on the dorsal surface, mostly with numerous small pores, rarely with rather large pores at the corners on the ventral surface, the inner walls adjacent to green cells smooth; the green cells in cross section trapezoidal, more broadly exposed on the dorsal surface. Dioicous; antheridial branches reddish brown; perigonial leaves shorter and wider than vegetative branch leaves. Perichaetial leaves broadly ovate with rounded apex, margins entire. Spores yellowish brown.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Sphagnum cuspidatum var. plumosum Nees & Hornschuch; S. faxonii Warnstorf; S. virginianum Warnstorf
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Type Information

Isotype for Sphagnum virginianum Warnst.
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): T. H. Kearney
Year Collected: 1898
Locality: Great Dismal Swamp, Lake Drummond., Virginia, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Warnstorf, C. F. 1900. Hedwigia. 39: 101.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat: on wet humus under forests and bases of trees forming a hummock-hollow complex adjacent to bog mats.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Sphagnum cuspidatum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sphagnum cuspidatum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Wikipedia

Sphagnum cuspidatum

Sphagnum cuspidatum (Toothed peat moss) is a peat moss found commonly in Great Britain, Norway, Sweden, the eastern coast of the United States, and in Colombia.[1]

Description[edit]

Sphagnum cuspidatum is brown to greenish brown in color with slender green stems. Individual plants are slender and weak-stemmed, and are moderately sized compared to other peat mosses.[2] Aquatic forms are flaccid and plumose giving a feathery appearance, whereas the emergent forms are much more compact.[2] Branches are spread in quite obvious sickle shaped patterns, giving the capitulum a twisted appearance.[2] The capitula is often green to yellow, tinged with red-brown in color. The leaves on the stems are triangular-ovate in shape, usually a bit longer than 1.2 mm, and are often very compact with one another. The leaves end in sharp points. Meristem tissue is often fibrillose. The branch stems are green, with pinkish coloration at the proximal ends, and the cortex region is enlarged. The leaves on the branches are ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate in shape, and are between 1.6-5 mm in length. These leaves falcate back towards the tips of the branches. When dry, they are often undulate and recurved. In submerged forms, the branch leaves can sometimes be faintly serrated.[2] S. cuspidatum is a dioecious species. The spores produced are 29-38 µm, covered with large papillae on both surfaces, and appear to be covered in small blisters (pusticulate).[3] S. cuspidatum can be found on wet humus under forests and on the bases of trees forming a hummock-hollow complex; in or near bogs.[3]


Associated Species and Ecology[edit]

Distinguishing Sphagnum cuspidatum from S. viride is sometimes difficult, as both occur over a similar geographic range and both grow in wet carpets. Sphagnum cuspidatum has narrower branch leaves and usually a distinct red tinge at the branch bases within the capitulum.[3] Sphagnum cuspidatum is a dominant species in the bogs that it inhabits.[4] In wetlands, they consume methane through symbiosis with partly endophytic methanotrophic bacteria, leading to highly effective in situ methane recycling preventing large-scale methane emission into the atmosphere. The bacteria are present in the hyaline cells of the plant. Sometimes, Sphagnum moss can be infected with another type of fungus that can cause sporotrichosis. The other fungus can enter the body through cuts or scrapes on the skin, and will then cause ulcerous skin lesions. It is therefore advised to wear gloves and long sleeves when handling Sphagnum moss, and to avoid contact with the moss against scraped or cut skin.[4]

Distribution[edit]

Known occurrence of Sphagnum cuspidatum are on the map above.[1] The moss prefers damp conditions, and is relatively hardy in peat bogs. It does not perform as well in completed submerged conditions as it is incapable of producing sufficient amounts of chlorophyll to grow extensively, and natural causes also result in the death of new shoots produced.[5]

Uses[edit]

Like most species of Sphagnum, this moss has mild antiseptic capabilities. It is very absorbent and acidic, and therefore creates environments not suitable for bacterial growth. These mosses were used up until World War I to pack wounds on the battlefield to prevent infection. Sphagnum is also used to decorate hanging baskets, as a packing material in the shipping industry, and in some parts of Africa it is even used to pad cushions and mattresses. Since the moss is capable of holding many times its weight in water, it is useful as a potting material for new plants since it provides consistent moisture. It can also be used in conjunction with decaying organic matter as an effective medium for germinating seeds. Some species of Sphagnum moss in general have been used as a fuel source in temperate climates.[4]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Encyclopedia of Life". eol.org. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d "Encyclopedia of life". eol.org. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  3. ^ a b c "Flora of North America: Sphagnum cuspidatum". efloras.org. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  4. ^ a b c "Sphagnum cuspidatum Ehrh. ex Hoffm". database.prota.org. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
  5. ^ Boatman, D. J. (March 1977). "Observations on the Growth of Sphagnum Cuspidatum in a Bog Pool on the Silver Flowe National Nature Reserve". Journal of Ecology 1 (65): 119–26. Retrieved 17 December 2014. 
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Notes

Comments

Sporophytes are occasional, capsules mature in early to mid summer.

  

Distinguishing Sphagnum cuspidatum from S. viride is sometimes difficult, as both occur over a similar geographic range and both grow in wet carpets. Sphagnum cuspidatum has narrower branch leaves and usually a distinct red tinge at the branch bases within the capitulum.

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Comments

This species is characterized among closely related species by its narrowly elongate branch leaves that are 4–6 times longer than wide.
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