Overview

Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Sphagnum cuspidatum Ehrh. ex Hoffm.:
Brazil (South America)
China (Asia)
Costa Rica (Mesoamerica)
Madagascar (Africa & Madagascar)
Philippines (Asia)
Paraguay (South America)
United States (North America)
Australia (Oceania)
Canada (North America)
Colombia (South America)
Thailand (Asia)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Sphagnum bernieri Besch. ex Renauld & Cardot:
Madagascar (Africa & Madagascar)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution: China, India, Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Guinea, Australia, Europe, North, Central, and South America, and Africa.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants slender and weak-stemmed, moderate-sized, flaccid and plumose in aquatic forms to more compact in emergent forms, spreading branches often con-spicuously falcate, giving capitulum a twisted appearance; green to yellow, often tinged with red, red-brown or brown in capitula. Stems green; superficial cortex of 2-3 layers, 2 layers of enlarged thin-walled cells. Stem leaves triangular-ovate, more than 1.2 mm, usually appressed; apex acute to apiculate, hyaline cells rarely septate or porose, apical region often fibrillose. Branches mostly unranked to weakly 5-ranked, often conspicuously falcate, leaves greatly elongated at distal end. Branch fascicles with 2 spreading and 2-3 pendent branches. Branch stems green, but often pinkish at the proximal ends, with cortex enlarged with conspicuous retort cells. Branch leaves ovate-lanceolate to lanceolate, 1.6-5 mm, falcate toward branch tips, when dry often undulate and recurved, rarely weakly serrulate along the margins in submerged forms, leaves from middle of spreading branches with length to width ratio less than or equal to 1:0.28; hyaline cells length to width ratio in apical convex surface region 8:1 or more, convex surface with 0-1 small round pores at apex, concave surface with faint round wall thinnings in cell apices and angles; chlorophyllous cells triangular to trapezoidal in transverse section, broadly exposed on the convex surface and exposed slightly on the concave surface. Sexual condition dioicous. Spores 29-38 µm; covered with large papillae on both surfaces, appearing pusticulate; proximal laesura less than 0.5 spore radius.
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Description

Plants slender, soft, yellowish green to brown, somewhat shiny when dry. Stem cortex in 2–3 layers, hyaline cells large, thin-walled, without fibrils; central cylinder deeply yellowish green, clearly distinguished from the cortical cells. Stem leaves 1.2–2.0 mm × 0.5–0.8 mm, oblong-triangular to isosceles-triangular, gradually acute and slightly dentate at the apex, borders narrow above, clearly widened from the middle to the base (ca. 1/3 leaf base); hyaline cells narrow, undivided, often with fibrils, sometimes with small end pores on the dorsal surface. Branches in fascicles of 4, with 2 spreading. Branch leaves 2.0–4.0 mm × 0.5–0.6 mm, slightly shiny, often undulate at margins and secund when dry, narrowly ovate-lanceolate, gradually narrowed to a blunt, dentate apex; margins bordered by a few rows of linear cells; central hyaline cells narrowly elongate-rhomboidal, with small, ringed pores at the upper corners, rarely with pores at the lower corners on the dorsal surface, mostly with numerous small pores, rarely with rather large pores at the corners on the ventral surface, the inner walls adjacent to green cells smooth; the green cells in cross section trapezoidal, more broadly exposed on the dorsal surface. Dioicous; antheridial branches reddish brown; perigonial leaves shorter and wider than vegetative branch leaves. Perichaetial leaves broadly ovate with rounded apex, margins entire. Spores yellowish brown.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Sphagnum cuspidatum var. plumosum Nees & Hornschuch; S. faxonii Warnstorf; S. virginianum Warnstorf
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Type Information

Isotype for Sphagnum virginianum Warnst.
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): T. H. Kearney
Year Collected: 1898
Locality: Great Dismal Swamp, Lake Drummond., Virginia, United States, North America
  • Isotype: Warnstorf, C. F. 1900. Hedwigia. 39: 101.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat: on wet humus under forests and bases of trees forming a hummock-hollow complex adjacent to bog mats.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Sphagnum cuspidatum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sphagnum cuspidatum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Notes

Comments

Sporophytes are occasional, capsules mature in early to mid summer.

  

Distinguishing Sphagnum cuspidatum from S. viride is sometimes difficult, as both occur over a similar geographic range and both grow in wet carpets. Sphagnum cuspidatum has narrower branch leaves and usually a distinct red tinge at the branch bases within the capitulum.

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Comments

This species is characterized among closely related species by its narrowly elongate branch leaves that are 4–6 times longer than wide.
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