Overview

Distribution

Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Sphagnum tenuifolium Warnst.:
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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Localities documented in Tropicos sources

Sphagnum fuscum (Schimp.) H. Klinggr.:
China (Asia)
Greenland (North America)
Kazakhstan (Asia)
Canada (North America)
United States (North America)

Note: This information is based on publications available through Tropicos and may not represent the entire distribution. Tropicos does not categorize distributions as native or non-native.
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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Unknown/Undetermined

Confidence: Confident

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Distribution: China, Japan, Russian Far East, Europe, and North America.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Description

Plants small and slender, stiff and usually compact, capitulum small and flat-topped; typically deep reddish brown, also greenish brown in shaded habitats and in early seasonal growth, without metallic lustre when dry. Stems dark reddish brown; superficial cortical cells aporose. Stem leaves lingulate, 0.8-1.3 mm; apex broadly rounded and entire to lacerate, sometimes slightly mucronate or slightly denticulate; hyaline cells rhombic, 0-1(-2)-septate, usually efibrillose. Branches long and slender to short and compact, unranked to 5-ranked. Branch fascicles with 2 spreading and 1-2 pendent branches. Branch leaves ovate-lanceolate, 1.1-1.3 mm, straight, concave, apex strongly involute; margins entire, hyaline cells on convex surface with round to elliptic pores along the commissures, grading from small pores near the leaf apex to large pores near the base, concave surface with large round pores in proximal marginal regions of leaf. Sexual condition dioicous. Spores 17-30 µm, finely papillose on proximal surface and pusticulate on distal surface; proximal laesura less than 0.5 spore radius.
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Description

Plants slender, up to 12 cm high, dark green tinged with brownish color, in compact tufts. Stem cortex in 3–4 layers, hyaline cells thin-walled, without fibrils; central cylinder brownish green or yellowish. Stem leaves 0.8–1.2 mm × 0.5–0.8 mm, slightly larger than or equal to branch leaves, oblong-ligulate, flat, with obtuse, entire or lacerate apex, borders narrow above the middle, suddenly widened below (ca. 1/4 the leaf width at base); hyaline cells divided, generally without fibrils. Branches in fascicles of 3–4, with 2 spreading. Branch leaves 0.8–1.3 mm × 0.4–0.5 mm, ovate-lanceolate, gradually narrowed to a blunt, dentate apex, borders narrowly differentiated, entire, involute above; hyaline cells fibrillose, with several rather large, ringed pores nearly along commissure on the dorsal surface, in the upper cells without pores on the ventral surface, with a few large pores below the middle parts of leaves; green cells often triangular or sometimes trapezoidal, exposed on the ventral surface, enclosed by hyaline cells on the dorsal surface. Dioicous; antheridial branches similar to vegetative branches, yellowish brown. Perigonial leaves small, broadly ovate. Perichaetial leaves large, broadly elliptic. Spores yellowish, smooth, 25–30 µm in diameter.
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Diagnostic Description

Synonym

Sphagnum acutifolium var. fuscum Schimper, Mém. Hist. Nat. Sphaignes, 64. 1857; S. tenuifolium Warnstorf; S. vancouveriense Warnstorf
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Type Information

Isotype for Sphagnum tenuifolium Warnst.
Catalog Number: US
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany
Verification Degree: Card file verified by examination of alleged type specimen
Preparation: Pressed specimen
Collector(s): A. Waghorne
Year Collected: 1893
Locality: Labrador, Cape Charles., Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, North America
  • Isotype: Warnstorf, C. F. 1895. Allg. Bot. Z. Syst. 1: 115.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat: growing in compact hummocks in peatland or on shaded, wet ground under forests.
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Sphagnum fuscum

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Sphagnum fuscum

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNR - Unranked

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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Threats

Comments: Highly threatened by land-use conversion, habitat fragmentation, forest management practices, and sedimentation (Southern Appalachian Species Viability Project 2002).

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Wikipedia

Sphagnum fuscum

Sphagnum fuscum ( Rusty peat moss) is a peat moss found commonly in Norway and Sweden, and can be found scattered across North America, the United Kingdom, and in southern to eastern Europe.[1]

Description[edit]

Sphagnum fuscum is brown to greenish brown in color with slender brown stems. It is individually less robust than other peat mosses, especially when clumped into compact hummocks. The moss will form thread-like branches interwoven within hummocks. The leaves along the stem are tongue-shaped, while the leaves along the branches are pointed and lance-shaped. During the sporophyte stage, the moss will have a short stalk of around 1-2mm, with a brown capsule of about 1-1.5mm. Sphagnum fuscum prefers older, drier bogs to inhabit and will formulate hummocks in such conditions. In bogs dominated by black spruce, S. fuscum will form extensive ground cover. On average, S. fuscum inhabits more acidic soils with pH ranging from 3.6-7.5, and is also able to colonize at high elevations. The moss is circumpolar.[2]

Endangerment[edit]

Sphagnum fuscum faces endangerment across much of the globe. Due to reductions in wetlands and development of these areas, the moss is referred to as “high risk” in Germany, while being on several Endangered species lists within some German states. Switzerland has labelled S. fuscum as vulnerable. In the United States, S. fuscum is reported to be at risk in the state of North Carolina. Across Europe, S. fuscum’s habitats are under protection. Germany and Switzerland have both placed the moss under “special protection.”

Associated Species[edit]

This species is associated with Sphagnum angustifolium, S. fallax, S. magellanicum, S. papillosum, more infrequently with S. teres, and S. warnstorfii in richer sites.[3] Sphagnum fuscum is easily discernible from other species of Sphagnum, as it tends to be reddish brown in color, and is more likely to form hummocks.

Distribution[edit]

Sphagnum fuscum distribution.png

Known occurrence of Sphagnum fuscus are on the map above. The moss inhabits boreal forests and marshlands primarily, and is more likely to be found in colder climates. The moss is also capable of inhabiting areas of relatively high elevation.

Uses[edit]

In recent studies performed in Eastern Europe, it was found that stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios in α-cellulose of Sphagnum fuscum stems subsampled from hummocks and peat plateau profiles are useful indicators for summer temperature and winter precipitation at decadal to millennial timescales.[4] In another study conducted in Alberta, Canada, it was found that S. fuscum serves as an indicator of high depositions of sulphur and nitrogen in substrates. S. fuscum grows in areas with high sulphur and nitrogen depositions, which is concomitant with the decreased pH of the soil.[5] Sphagnum has also been used historically for medicinal purposes. The moss itself has antimicrobial properties, and was therefore used as an effective filler for wounds to prevent infection. It also retains large amounts of moisture, which was quite useful in keeping the skin around a wound moist to prevent tissue death.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Sphagnum fuscum Klinggräf, 1872". Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  2. ^ Andy Amphlett and Sandy Payne (2010). "Sphagnum fuscum". In I. Atherton, S. Bosanquet and M. Lawley. Mosses and Liverworts of Britain and Ireland. British Bryological Society. p. 290. ISBN 9780956131010. 
  3. ^ Andrus, Richard E. "Sphagnum fuscum". efloras.org. Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  4. ^ Tillman, Päivi Kaislahti; Steffen Holzkämper, Thorbjørn Joest Andersen, Gustaf Hugelius, Peter Kuhry, Pirita Oksanen (June 4, 2013). "Stable isotopes in Sphagnum fuscum peat as late-Holocene climate proxies in northeastern European Russia". The Holocene. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  5. ^ Wieder et al., R. Kelman (2009). Nitrogen and sulphur deposition and the growth of Sphagnum fuscum in bogs of the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, Alberta. Villanova, PA: University of Villanova. pp. 161–170. 
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Notes

Comments

Sphagnum fuscum is common in ombrotrophic mires and alpine mountain summits where it may form small to large hummocks to 1 m in height, more infrequently in weakly minerotrophic mires and richer fens.

  

Sporophytes are common in Sphagnum fuscum, which is associated with S. angustifolium, S. fallax, S. magellanicum, S. papillosum, and more infrequently with S. teres, and S. warnstorfii in richer sites. Very widespread but generally easily recognized, it is the only small brown hummock-forming species of sect. Acutifolia over most of its range. There are some significant variations in this species. The stem leaves can vary from having a rounded, entire apex to having a somewhat flat and lacerate apex. The branches also vary from being unranked and slender to 5-ranked and blunt. The color also can vary from a light to a dark brown. There does not seem, however, to be any consistent pattern to these variations and thus no taxonomic recognition has been given to them. See also discussion under 73. S. flavicomans.

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