MorphologyRead full entry
European starlings grow to a length of about 21.5 centimeters (8.5 inches). They weigh between 2.5 and 3.5 ounces. Both males and females have iridescent green glossed feathers covering the body. The black wings sometimes have a highlight of green and purple. In winter, when the tips of the feathers have eroded away, a white or cream colored "flecking" appears against a dusky black background, primarily on the breast. The shape of these feathers is rounded at the base and jagged toward the tip. Males have elongated feathers over the breast. Females have short and petite plumes.
Starling legs are reddish brown. Their eyes are dark brown. The bill is yellow during the mating season, and black the rest of the year. Males have a bluish spot at the base of their beaks, while the female displays a reddish pink speck. Young birds are overall pale-brown until they grow their adult feathers. Young birds have a brownish-black bill all year.
Range mass: 70.0 to 100.0 g.
Average length: 21.5 cm.
Average wingspan: 40.0 cm.
Other Physical Features: endothermic ; homoiothermic; bilateral symmetry
Sexual Dimorphism: sexes alike
Average basal metabolic rate: 0.877 W.