Data about <i>Sturnus vulgaris</i>

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Distribution

 
latitude min
  • latitude
    The geographic latitude (in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic center of a Location. Positive values are north of the Equator, negative values are south of it. Legal values lie between -90 and 90, inclusive.
    http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/decimalLatitude
Additional detail
31.77 degrees
OBIS Environmental Information  
Additional detail
64.5 degrees
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
longitude min
  • longitude
    The geographic longitude (in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic center of a Location. Positive values are east of the Greenwich Meridian, negative values are west of it. Legal values lie between -180 and 180, inclusive.
    http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/decimalLongitude
Additional detail
-123 degrees
OBIS Environmental Information  
Additional detail
21.02 degrees
OBIS Environmental Information  

Physical Description

 
body length (VT) average
Additional detail
21.5 cm
Birds Animal Diversity Web  
 
body mass average
Additional detail
85 g
Birds Animal Diversity Web  
Additional detail
70 g
Birds Animal Diversity Web  
Additional detail
100 g
Birds Animal Diversity Web  
Additional detail
1.89 log10 grams
Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
Additional detail
75 g
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
wingspan average
Additional detail
40 cm
Birds Animal Diversity Web  
 
sexual dimorphism
  • sexual dimorphism
    Sexual dimorphism is a phenotypic difference between males and females of the same species. The prototypical example is for differences in characteristics of reproductive organs. Other possible examples are for secondary sex characteristics, body size and morphology, ornamentation and behavior.
    http://www.owl-ontologies.com/unnamed.owl#Dimorphism
Additional detail
none
Birds Animal Diversity Web  
 
weight
Additional detail
74 g adult
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
Additional detail
6.4 g neonate stage
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  

Ecology

 
habitat
Additional detail
animal habitation
  • animal habitation
    The dwelling of an animal or group of similar animals.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00005803
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
chaparral
  • chaparral
    A shrubland area found primarily in regions with a Mediterranean climate (mid, wet winters and hot dry summers) often shaped by wildfires.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000301
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
city
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
city
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
cliff
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
coast
  • coast
    The general region of indefinite width that extends from the sea inland to the first major change in terrain features.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000303
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
coastal wetland
  • coastal wetland
    A wetland associated with the part of the land adjoining or near a sea or ocean.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000230
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
crevasse
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
farm
  • farm
    A tract of crop or grazing land, as well as the group of buildings with and often surrounding a farmhouse, including barns, sheds, and other outbuildings, used for agricultural production.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000078
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
forest
  • forest
    An area with a high density of trees. A small forest may be called a wood.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000111
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
grassland
  • grassland
    An area in which grasses (Graminae) are a significant component of the vegetation.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000106
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
grassland
  • grassland
    An area in which grasses (Graminae) are a significant component of the vegetation.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000106
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
heath
  • heath
    An upland moor or sandy area dominated by low shrubby vegetation including heather.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000107
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
intertidal zone
  • intertidal zone
    The area of the foreshore and seabed that is exposed to the air at low tide and submerged at high tide, i.e., the area between tide marks.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000316
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
lagoon
  • lagoon
    A sheet of saline water separated from the open sea by sand or shingle banks. The sheet of water between an offshore reef, especially of coral and mainland. The sheet of water within a ring or horseshoe shaped atoll.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000038
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
marine biome
  • marine biome
    An aquatic biome that comprises systems of open-ocean and unprotected coastal habitats, characterized by exposure to wave action, tidal fluctuation, and ocean currents as well as systems that largely resemble these. Water in the marine biome is generally within the salinity range of seawater: 30 to 38 ppt.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000447
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
meadow
  • meadow
    A habitat of rolling or flat terrain where grasses predominate. Typically, what is called a meadow has more biodiversity than a grassland as the former contains not only grasses but a significant variety of annual, biennial and perennial plants.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000108
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
mediterranean sea biome
  • mediterranean sea biome
    The mediterranean sea biome comprises mostly enclosed seas that have limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_01000047
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
mountain
  • mountain
    A landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill, but there is no universally accepted standard definition for the height of a mountain or a hill although a mountain usually has an identifiable summit and a local relief of more than 300m.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000081
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
mountain range
  • mountain range
    A series of connected and aligned mountains or mountain ridges.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000080
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
nest of bird
  • nest of bird
    A bird nest is the spot in which a bird lays and incubates its eggs and raises its young.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00005805
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
nest of bird
  • nest of bird
    A bird nest is the spot in which a bird lays and incubates its eggs and raises its young.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00005805
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
pasture
  • pasture
    Grassland used for grazing of ungulate livestock as part of a farm or ranch.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000266
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
plain
  • plain
    A region of general uniform slope, comparatively level, and of considerable extent.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000086
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
river
  • river
    Natural freshwater surface streams of considerable volume and a permanent or seasonal flow, moving in a definite channel toward a sea, lake, or another river; any large streams, or ones larger than brooks or creeks, such as the trunk stream and larger branches of a drainage system.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000022
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
saline marsh
  • saline marsh
    A marsh whose water contains a considerable quantity of dissolved salts.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000054
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
savanna
  • savanna
    A grassland of the tropics or subtropics with scattered trees.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000261
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
scrubland
  • scrubland
    Area covered with low-growing or stunted perennial vegetation and usually not mixed with trees.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000300
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
sea
  • sea
    A large expanse of saline water usually connected with an ocean.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000016
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
sea cliff
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
sewage
  • sewage
    Wastewater that is contaminated with feces or urine,
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002018
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
soil
  • soil
    Any material within 2 m from the Earth's surface that is in contact with the atmosphere, with the exclusion of living organisms, areas with continuous ice not covered by other material, and water bodies deeper than 2 m.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00001998
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
stream
  • stream
    Linear body of water flowing on the Earth's surface.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000023
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
subtropical
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
temperate
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
terrestrial biome
  • terrestrial biome
    A biome that applies to the terrestrial realm.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000446
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
watershed
  • watershed
    The separation between neighbouring drainage basins (catchments). In hilly country, the divide lies along topographical peaks and ridges, but in flat country or on a high plateau (especially where the ground is marshy) the divide may be invisible - just a more or less notional line on the ground on either side of which falling raindrops will start a journey to different rivers, and even to different sides of a country or continent.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000292
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
woodland
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
woodland
Environments - EOL project  
 
foraging habitat
Additional detail
terrestrial habitat
  • terrestrial habitat
    A habitat that is on or at the boundary of the surface of the Earth.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002009
Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
 
primary diet
Additional detail
omnivore adult
  • omnivore
    An animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals.
    http://www.owl-ontologies.com/unnamed.owl#Omnivore
Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
 
water nitrate concentration min
Additional detail
0.17 µmol/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
Additional detail
12.83 µmol/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water temperature min
Additional detail
7.57 degrees Celsius
OBIS Environmental Information  
Additional detail
16.54 degrees Celsius
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water silicate concentration min
Additional detail
0.99 µmol/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
Additional detail
11.14 µmol/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water phosphate concentration min
Additional detail
0.26 µmol/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
Additional detail
0.73 µmol/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water dissolved O2 concentration min
Additional detail
5.63 mL/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
Additional detail
8.18 mL/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water O2 saturation min
Additional detail
99.52 percent
OBIS Environmental Information  
Additional detail
108.89 percent
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water salinity min
Additional detail
6.43 PSU
OBIS Environmental Information  
Additional detail
35.28 PSU
OBIS Environmental Information  

Life History and Behavior

 
nest type
Additional detail
cavity
  • cavity
    The nest is placed in a cavity with a narrow/protected entrance.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/nestCavity
Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
 
developmental mode
Additional detail
altricial
  • altricial
    Parent(s) provide food and thermoregulation (e.g., passerines).
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/altricial
Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
 
foraging time
Additional detail
diurnal
Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
 
parental care
Additional detail
occasionally breeds cooperatively
  • occasionally breeds cooperatively
    The species has been known to breed cooperatively, with nonparents providing care.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/occasionalCooperativeBreeding
Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
 
clutch/brood/litter size
Additional detail
5
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
log10 productivity
Additional detail
-0.094
Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
 
onset of fertility
Additional detail
365 days female
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
Additional detail
365 days male
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
litters per year
Additional detail
2 per year
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
total life span max
Additional detail
22.9 years
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
growth rate
Additional detail
0.41 per day
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
prenatal development duration
  • prenatal development duration
    The duration of the development from fertilized, deposited or implanted egg to hatching/birth. Corresponds to egg incubation duration in oviparous animals and to gestation period duration in viviparous animals.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/PrenatalDevelopmentDuration
Additional detail
12 days
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
initial mortality rate
  • initial mortality rate
    The initial mortality rate (IMR) represents the mortality rate independently of the ageing process. Though there are different methods, the IMR is typically estimated from the mortality rate prior to its exponential increase with age, which can be obtained from the mortality curve (by looking at the baseline mortality prior to its exponential increase) or, for mice, by using t = 0.25 in the Gompertz equation.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/InitialMortalityRate
Additional detail
0.5 per year
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
mortality rate doubling time
  • mortality rate doubling time
    The mortality rate doubling time (MRDT) is considered to be a measure of the rate of ageing. It is estimated from the slope of the Gompertz curve by: MRDT = 0.693/G where G is the exponential (Gompertz) mortality rate coefficient.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/MortalityRateDoublingTime
Additional detail
8 years
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
migratory status
Additional detail
migratory
  • migratory
    Makes seasonal movements between breeding and wintering grounds
    http://www.owl-ontologies.com/unnamed.owl#Migratory
Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  

Physiology and Cell Biology

 
basal metabolic rate
  • basal metabolic rate
    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy expended daily by humans and other animals at rest. Rest is defined as existing in a neutrally temperate environment while in the post-absorptive state.
    http://purl.bioontology.org/ontology/SNOMEDCT/165109007
Additional detail
0.88 Watts
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  

Conservation

 
extinction status
Additional detail
extant
Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology  

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