Data about <i>Sturnus vulgaris</i>

TraitBank assembles data records from many providers. Select a row for more details about the record, or search TraitBank.

Distribution

 
latitude min
Additional detail
31.77 degrees
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
latitude max
Additional detail
64.5 degrees
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
longitude min
Additional detail
-123 degrees
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
longitude max
Additional detail
21.02 degrees
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
geographic distribution includes
Additional detail
Adams County
Washington Bird Phenology  
Additional detail
Aegean and Western Turkey sclerophyllous and mixed forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Afrotropical
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Al Hajar montane woodlands
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Alai-Western Tian Shan steppe
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Albany thickets
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Alps conifer and mixed forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Altai alpine meadow and tundra
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Altai montane forest and forest steppe
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Altai steppe and semi-desert
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Anatolian conifer and deciduous mixed forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Antipodes Subantarctic Islands tundra
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Appenine deciduous montane forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Arabian Desert and East Sahero-Arabian xeric shrublands
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Arabian Peninsula coastal fog desert
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Atlantic mixed forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Australasia
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Azerbaijan shrub desert and steppe
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Azores temperate mixed forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Badghyz and Karabil semi-desert
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Baja California desert
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Balkan mixed forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Baltic mixed forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Baluchistan xeric woodlands
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Caledon conifer forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
California coastal sage and chaparral
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Cantabrian mixed forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Carpathian montane forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Caspian lowland desert
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Caucasus mixed forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Celtic broadleaf forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Central Afghan Mountains xeric woodlands
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Central Anatolian deciduous forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Central Anatolian steppe
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Central European mixed forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Central Mexican matorral
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Chatham Island temperate forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Chihuahuan desert
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Corsican montane broadleaf and mixed forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Crete Mediterranean forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Crimean Submediterranean forest complex
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Cyprus Mediterranean forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Dinaric Mountains mixed forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Douglas County
Washington Bird Phenology  
Additional detail
Drakensberg montane grasslands, woodlands and forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
East Afghan montane conifer forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
East European forest steppe
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Eastern Anatolian deciduous forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Eastern Anatolian montane steppe
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Eastern Mediterranean conifer-sclerophyllous-broadleaf forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Elburz Range forest steppe
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Emin Valley steppe
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
English Lowlands beech forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Euxine-Colchic broadleaf forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Faroe Islands boreal grasslands
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Grant County
Washington Bird Phenology  
Additional detail
Gulf of Oman desert and semi-desert
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Himalayan subtropical broadleaf forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Iberian conifer forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Iberian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Iceland boreal birch forests and alpine tundra
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Illyrian deciduous forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Indo-Malayan
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Indus Valley desert
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Island County
Washington Bird Phenology  
Additional detail
Italian sclerophyllous and semi-deciduous forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Junggar Basin semi-desert
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Karakoram-West Tibetan Plateau alpine steppe
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Kazakh upland
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
King County
Washington Bird Phenology  
Additional detail
Klickitat County
Washington Bird Phenology  
Additional detail
Kola Peninsula tundra
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Kopet Dag semi-desert
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Kopet Dag woodlands and forest steppe
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Kuh Rud and Eastern Iran montane woodlands
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
KwaZulu-Cape coastal forest mosaic
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Lowland fynbos and renosterveld
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Maputaland-Pondoland bushland and thickets
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Mesopotamian shrub desert
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Middle East steppe
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Montane fynbos and renosterveld
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Nama Karoo
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Nearctic
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
North Atlantic moist mixed forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
North Tibetan Plateau-Kunlun Mountains alpine desert
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Northeastern Spain and Southern France Mediterranean forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Northern Anatolian conifer and deciduous forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Northwest Iberian montane forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Northwestern Himalayan alpine shrub and meadows
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Northwestern thorn scrub forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Okanogan County
Washington Bird Phenology  
Additional detail
Pacific County
Washington Bird Phenology  
Additional detail
Palearctic
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Pamir alpine desert and tundra
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Pannonian mixed forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Paropamisus xeric woodlands
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Pend Oreille County
Washington Bird Phenology  
Additional detail
Persian Gulf desert and semi-desert
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Pierce County
Washington Bird Phenology  
Additional detail
Pindus Mountains mixed forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Po Basin mixed forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Pontic steppe
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Pyrenees conifer and mixed forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Red Sea Nubo-Sindian tropical desert and semi-desert
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Registan-North Pakistan sandy desert
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Rodope montane mixed forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Sarmatic mixed forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Sayan Alpine meadows and tundra
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Scandinavian and Russian taiga
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Scandinavian coastal conifer forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Scandinavian Montane Birch forest and grasslands
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Sierra Juarez and San Pedro Martir pine-oak forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Snohomish County
Washington Bird Phenology  
Additional detail
Sonoran desert
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Sonoran-Sinaloan transition subtropical dry forest
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
South Appenine mixed montane forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Southeastern Iberian shrubs and woodlands
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Southwest Iberian Mediterranean sclerophyllous and mixed forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Taklimakan desert
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Tamaulipan mezquital
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Tarim Basin deciduous forests and steppe
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Thar desert
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Tian Shan foothill arid steppe
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Tian Shan montane conifer forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Tian Shan montane steppe and meadows
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Tyrrhenian-Adriatic sclerophyllous and mixed forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Upper Gangetic Plains moist deciduous forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Western European broadleaf forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Western Gulf Coastal grasslands
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Whitman County
Washington Bird Phenology  
Additional detail
Zagros Mountains forest steppe
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  

Physical Description

 
body length (VT) average
Additional detail
21.5 cm
Birds Animal Diversity Web  
 
body mass max
Additional detail
92 g female
Avian Mass Data  
Additional detail
100 g male
Avian Mass Data  
 
body mass average
Additional detail
85 g
Birds Animal Diversity Web  
 
body mass min
Additional detail
70 g
Birds Animal Diversity Web  
 
body mass max
Additional detail
100 g
Birds Animal Diversity Web  
 
body mass
Additional detail
1.89 log10 grams
Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
Additional detail
75 g
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
wingspan average
Additional detail
40 cm
Birds Animal Diversity Web  
 
sexual dimorphism
Additional detail
none
Birds Animal Diversity Web  
 
weight
Additional detail
74 g adult
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
Additional detail
6.4 g neonate stage
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  

Ecology

 
primary diet
Additional detail
omnivore adult
Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
 
habitat
Additional detail
animal habitation
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
chaparral
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
city
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
city
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
cliff
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
coast
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
coastal wetland
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
crevasse
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
farm
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
forest
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
grassland
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
grassland
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
heath
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
intertidal zone
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
lagoon
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
marine biome
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
marine habitat
IUCN  
Additional detail
meadow
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
mediterranean sea biome
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
mountain
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
mountain range
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
nest of bird
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
nest of bird
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
pasture
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
plain
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
river
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
saline marsh
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
savanna
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
scrubland
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
sea
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
sea cliff
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
sewage
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
soil
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
stream
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
subtropical
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
temperate
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
terrestrial biome
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
terrestrial habitat
IUCN  
Additional detail
watershed
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
woodland
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail
woodland
Environments - EOL project  
 
habitat includes
Additional detail
Boreal Forests (Taiga)
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Deserts and Xeric Shrublands
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Flooded Grasslands and Savannas
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Mediterranean Forests, woodlands and scrubs
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Montane Grasslands and Shrublands
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Temperate Broadleaf and Mixed Forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Temperate Coniferous Forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Temperate Grasslands, Savannas, and Shrublands
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Tropical and Subtropical Dry Broadleaf Forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
Additional detail
Tundra
Biome & Ecoregion Mappings  
 
foraging habitat
Additional detail
terrestrial habitat
Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
 
interacts with
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
 
hosts
Additional detail GloBI  
 
has host
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
 
feeds on
Additional detail Chen and Moles, 2015  
Additional detail Chen and Moles, 2015  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail Chen and Moles, 2015  
Additional detail Chen and Moles, 2015  
Additional detail Chen and Moles, 2015  
Additional detail Chen and Moles, 2015  
Additional detail Chen and Moles, 2015  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail GloBI  
Additional detail Chen and Moles, 2015  
 
water nitrate concentration min
Additional detail
0.17 µmol/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water nitrate concentration max
Additional detail
12.83 µmol/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water temperature min
Additional detail
7.57 degrees Celsius
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water temperature max
Additional detail
16.54 degrees Celsius
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water silicate concentration min
Additional detail
0.99 µmol/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water silicate concentration max
Additional detail
11.14 µmol/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water phosphate concentration min
Additional detail
0.26 µmol/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water phosphate concentration max
Additional detail
0.73 µmol/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water dissolved O2 concentration min
Additional detail
5.63 mL/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water dissolved O2 concentration max
Additional detail
8.18 mL/L
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water O2 saturation min
Additional detail
99.52 percent
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water O2 saturation max
Additional detail
108.89 percent
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
elevation median
Additional detail
121 m
Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)  
 
elevation mean
Additional detail
142.2 m
Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)  
 
elevation min
Additional detail
3.3 m
Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)  
 
elevation max
Additional detail
2,710.5 m
Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)  
 
water salinity min
Additional detail
6.43 PSU
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
water salinity max
Additional detail
35.28 PSU
OBIS Environmental Information  
 
is dispersal vector for
Additional detail Chen and Moles, 2015  
Additional detail Chen and Moles, 2015  
Additional detail Chen and Moles, 2015  
Additional detail Chen and Moles, 2015  
Additional detail Chen and Moles, 2015  
Additional detail Chen and Moles, 2015  
Additional detail Chen and Moles, 2015  
Additional detail Chen and Moles, 2015  

Life History and Behavior

 
nest type
Additional detail
cavity
Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
 
developmental mode
Additional detail
altricial
Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
 
foraging time
Additional detail
diurnal
Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
 
parental care
Additional detail
occasionally breeds cooperatively
Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
 
clutch/brood/litter size mean
Additional detail
4.8
Washington Bird Phenology  
 
clutch/brood/litter size
Additional detail
5
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
log10 productivity
Additional detail
-0.094
Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
 
onset of fertility
Additional detail
365 days female
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
Additional detail
365 days male
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
litters per year
Additional detail
2 per year
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
total life span max
Additional detail
22.9 years
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
growth rate
Additional detail
0.41 per day
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
prenatal development duration measurement
Additional detail
11-14 days
Bird Incubation  
Additional detail
14 days
Bird Incubation  
 
prenatal development duration
Additional detail
12 days
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
initial mortality rate
Additional detail
0.5 per year
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
mortality rate doubling time
Additional detail
8 years
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
migratory status
Additional detail
migratory
Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
 
egg laying begins earliest
Additional detail
03-28
Washington Bird Phenology  
 
egg laying begins latest
Additional detail
08-03
Washington Bird Phenology  

Physiology and Cell Biology

 
basal metabolic rate
Additional detail
0.88 Watts
AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
 
body temperature max
Additional detail
109.25 degrees Fahrenheit
Bird Incubation  

Conservation

 
population trend
Additional detail
Decreasing
IUCN  
 
conservation status
Additional detail
least concern
IUCN  
 
extinction status
Additional detail
extant
Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology  

Disclaimer

EOL content is automatically assembled from many different content providers. As a result, from time to time you may find pages on EOL that are confusing.

To request an improvement, please leave a comment on the page. Thank you!