Data about <i>Sturnus vulgaris</i>

TraitBank assembles data records from many providers. Select a row for more details about the record, or search within Sturnus vulgaris.

Distribution

Data about <i>Sturnus vulgaris</i>
native range includes
Additional detail Africa Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail Africa Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail Asia Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail Asia Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail Europe Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail Europe Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail Ghana Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail Ghana Global Invasive Species Listings  
introduced range includes
Additional detail Australia Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail Australia Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail Bermuda Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail Bermuda Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail Botswana Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail Botswana Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail Canada Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail New Zealand Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail New Zealand Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail United States (USA) Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail USA Global Invasive Species Listings  
  • latitude
    The geographic latitude (in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic center of a Location. Positive values are north of the Equator, negative values are south of it. Legal values lie between -90 and 90, inclusive.
    http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/decimalLatitude
latitude min
Additional detail 31.77 degrees OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 64.5 degrees OBIS Environmental Information  
  • longitude
    The geographic longitude (in decimal degrees, using the spatial reference system given in geodeticDatum) of the geographic center of a Location. Positive values are east of the Greenwich Meridian, negative values are west of it. Legal values lie between -180 and 180, inclusive.
    http://rs.tdwg.org/dwc/terms/decimalLongitude
longitude min
Additional detail -123 degrees OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 21.02 degrees OBIS Environmental Information  

Physical Description

Data about <i>Sturnus vulgaris</i>
body length (VT) average
Additional detail 21.5 cm Birds Animal Diversity Web  
body mass average
Additional detail 85 g Birds Animal Diversity Web  
min Additional detail 70 g Birds Animal Diversity Web  
Additional detail 77.09 g Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
max Additional detail 100 g Birds Animal Diversity Web  
Additional detail 75 g AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
wingspan average
Additional detail 40 cm Birds Animal Diversity Web  
  • sexual dimorphism
    Sexual dimorphism is a phenotypic difference between males and females of the same species. The prototypical example is for differences in characteristics of reproductive organs. Other possible examples are for secondary sex characteristics, body size and morphology, ornamentation and behavior.
    http://www.owl-ontologies.com/unnamed.owl#Dimorphism
sexual dimorphism
Additional detail none Birds Animal Diversity Web  
weight
Additional detail 74 g adult AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
Additional detail 6.4 g neonate stage AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  

Ecology

Data about <i>Sturnus vulgaris</i>
habitat
Additional detail animal habitation
  • animal habitation
    The dwelling of an animal or group of similar animals.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00005803
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail chaparral
  • chaparral
    A shrubland area found primarily in regions with a Mediterranean climate (mid, wet winters and hot dry summers) often shaped by wildfires.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000301
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail city Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail city Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail cliff Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail coast
  • coast
    The general region of indefinite width that extends from the sea inland to the first major change in terrain features.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000303
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail coastal wetland
  • coastal wetland
    A wetland associated with the part of the land adjoining or near a sea or ocean.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000230
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail crevasse Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail farm
  • farm
    A tract of crop or grazing land, as well as the group of buildings with and often surrounding a farmhouse, including barns, sheds, and other outbuildings, used for agricultural production.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000078
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail forest
  • forest
    An area with a high density of trees. A small forest may be called a wood.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000111
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail grassland
  • grassland
    An area in which grasses (Graminae) are a significant component of the vegetation.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000106
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail grassland
  • grassland
    An area in which grasses (Graminae) are a significant component of the vegetation.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000106
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail heath
  • heath
    An upland moor or sandy area dominated by low shrubby vegetation including heather.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000107
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail intertidal zone
  • intertidal zone
    The area of the foreshore and seabed that is exposed to the air at low tide and submerged at high tide, i.e., the area between tide marks.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000316
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail lagoon
  • lagoon
    A sheet of saline water separated from the open sea by sand or shingle banks. The sheet of water between an offshore reef, especially of coral and mainland. The sheet of water within a ring or horseshoe shaped atoll.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000038
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail marine biome
  • marine biome
    An aquatic biome that comprises systems of open-ocean and unprotected coastal habitats, characterized by exposure to wave action, tidal fluctuation, and ocean currents as well as systems that largely resemble these. Water in the marine biome is generally within the salinity range of seawater: 30 to 38 ppt.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000447
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail marine habitat
  • marine habitat
    A habitat that is in or on a sea or ocean containing high concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids (typically >35 grams dissolved salts per litre).
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000569
IUCN  
Additional detail meadow
  • meadow
    A habitat of rolling or flat terrain where grasses predominate. Typically, what is called a meadow has more biodiversity than a grassland as the former contains not only grasses but a significant variety of annual, biennial and perennial plants.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000108
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail mediterranean sea biome
  • mediterranean sea biome
    The mediterranean sea biome comprises mostly enclosed seas that have limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_01000047
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail mountain
  • mountain
    A landform that extends above the surrounding terrain in a limited area. A mountain is generally steeper than a hill, but there is no universally accepted standard definition for the height of a mountain or a hill although a mountain usually has an identifiable summit and a local relief of more than 300m.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000081
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail mountain range
  • mountain range
    A series of connected and aligned mountains or mountain ridges.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000080
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail nest of bird
  • nest of bird
    A bird nest is the spot in which a bird lays and incubates its eggs and raises its young.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00005805
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail nest of bird
  • nest of bird
    A bird nest is the spot in which a bird lays and incubates its eggs and raises its young.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00005805
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail pasture
  • pasture
    Grassland used for grazing of ungulate livestock as part of a farm or ranch.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000266
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail plain
  • plain
    A region of general uniform slope, comparatively level, and of considerable extent.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000086
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail river
  • river
    Natural freshwater surface streams of considerable volume and a permanent or seasonal flow, moving in a definite channel toward a sea, lake, or another river; any large streams, or ones larger than brooks or creeks, such as the trunk stream and larger branches of a drainage system.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000022
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail saline marsh
  • saline marsh
    A marsh whose water contains a considerable quantity of dissolved salts.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000054
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail savanna
  • savanna
    A grassland of the tropics or subtropics with scattered trees.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000261
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail scrubland
  • scrubland
    Area covered with low-growing or stunted perennial vegetation and usually not mixed with trees.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000300
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail sea
  • sea
    A large expanse of saline water usually connected with an ocean.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000016
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail sea cliff Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail sewage
  • sewage
    Wastewater that is contaminated with feces or urine,
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002018
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail soil
  • soil
    Any material within 2 m from the Earth's surface that is in contact with the atmosphere, with the exclusion of living organisms, areas with continuous ice not covered by other material, and water bodies deeper than 2 m.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00001998
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail stream
  • stream
    Linear body of water flowing on the Earth's surface.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000023
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail subtropical Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail temperate Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail terrestrial biome
  • terrestrial biome
    A biome that applies to the terrestrial realm.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000446
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail terrestrial habitat
  • terrestrial habitat
    A habitat that is on or at the boundary of the surface of the Earth.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002009
IUCN  
Additional detail watershed
  • watershed
    The separation between neighbouring drainage basins (catchments). In hilly country, the divide lies along topographical peaks and ridges, but in flat country or on a high plateau (especially where the ground is marshy) the divide may be invisible - just a more or less notional line on the ground on either side of which falling raindrops will start a journey to different rivers, and even to different sides of a country or continent.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00000292
Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail woodland Environments - EOL project  
Additional detail woodland Environments - EOL project  
foraging habitat
Additional detail terrestrial habitat
  • terrestrial habitat
    A habitat that is on or at the boundary of the surface of the Earth.
    http://purl.obolibrary.org/obo/ENVO_00002009
Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
primary diet
Additional detail omnivore
  • omnivore
    An animal that mainly eats all kinds of things, including plants and animals.
    http://www.owl-ontologies.com/unnamed.owl#Omnivore
adult
Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
  • interacts with
    an organism has an effect on another organism in the community.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/interactsWith
interacts with
Additional detail Aloe Family GloBI  
Additional detail Aloe Family GloBI  
Additional detail Asparagus Family GloBI  
Additional detail Cabbage Tree GloBI  
Additional detail Cats GloBI  
Additional detail Common Grackle GloBI  
Additional detail Cordyline GloBI  
Additional detail Cowbirds GloBI  
Additional detail Falcons GloBI  
Additional detail Gapeworm GloBI  
Additional detail Grackle GloBI  
Additional detail Hardbacked Ticks GloBI  
Additional detail Ixodes GloBI  
Additional detail Japanese Medlar GloBI  
Additional detail Jumping Spiders GloBI  
Additional detail Loquats GloBI  
Additional detail Louse Fly GloBI  
Additional detail Martins GloBI  
Additional detail New World Blackbirds GloBI  
Additional detail New Zealand Flax GloBI  
Additional detail New Zealand Flax GloBI  
Additional detail Ornithomya GloBI  
Additional detail Ornithomya avicularia GloBI  
Additional detail Pensacola GloBI  
Additional detail Persian Walnut GloBI  
Additional detail Persian Walnut GloBI  
Additional detail Phormium GloBI  
Additional detail Phormium GloBI  
Additional detail Plagiorhynchidae GloBI  
Additional detail Plagiorhynchus GloBI  
Additional detail Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus GloBI  
Additional detail Purple Martin GloBI  
Additional detail Purple Martins GloBI  
Additional detail Rose Family GloBI  
Additional detail Sheep Tick GloBI  
Additional detail Small Cats GloBI  
Additional detail Starlings GloBI  
Additional detail Starlings GloBI  
Additional detail Syngamidae GloBI  
Additional detail Syngamus GloBI  
Additional detail Thrushes GloBI  
Additional detail Thrushes GloBI  
Additional detail Walnuts GloBI  
Additional detail Walnuts GloBI  
Additional detail Walnuts GloBI  
Additional detail Walnuts GloBI  
Additional detail Wildcat GloBI  
  • hosts
    provides some resource to a symbiont, either commensal, parasitic or mutualistic
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/hosts
hosts
Additional detail Common Starling GloBI  
Additional detail Common Starling GloBI  
Additional detail Starlings GloBI  
Additional detail Starlings GloBI  
  • has host
    derives some resource as a symbiont, either commensal, parasitic or mutualistic
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/hasHost
has host
Additional detail Starlings GloBI  
Additional detail Starlings GloBI  
feeds on
Additional detail Common Fig GloBI  
Additional detail Fig GloBI  
Additional detail Mulberries GloBI  
  • has parasite
    non-mutual relationship between organisms of different species where one organism, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the other, the host.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/hasParasite
has parasite
Additional detail Avian Malaria GloBI  
Additional detail Bird Lice GloBI  
Additional detail Bird Louse GloBI  
Additional detail Brueelia nebulosa GloBI  
Additional detail Menacanthus GloBI  
Additional detail Menacanthus eurysternus GloBI  
Additional detail Plasmodium GloBI  
Additional detail Plasmodium (Haemamoeba) GloBI  
Additional detail Sturnidoecus GloBI  
Additional detail Sturnidoecus sturni GloBI  
Additional detail Wardium farcimiosum GloBI  
  • interacts with
    an organism has an effect on another organism in the community.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/interactsWithreverse
interacts with
Additional detail Bank Swallows GloBI  
Additional detail Bluebirds GloBI  
Additional detail Cats GloBI  
Additional detail Chroicocephalus GloBI  
Additional detail Common Starling GloBI  
Additional detail Common Starling GloBI  
Additional detail Ducks, Geese and Swans GloBI  
Additional detail Eastern Bluebird GloBI  
Additional detail Gapeworm GloBI  
Additional detail Gulls and Allies GloBI  
Additional detail Gulls and Allies GloBI  
Additional detail Hardbacked Ticks GloBI  
Additional detail Ixodes GloBI  
Additional detail Louse Fly GloBI  
Additional detail Martins GloBI  
Additional detail Ornithomya GloBI  
Additional detail Ornithomya avicularia GloBI  
Additional detail Plagiorhynchidae GloBI  
Additional detail Plagiorhynchus GloBI  
Additional detail Plagiorhynchus cylindraceus GloBI  
Additional detail Red-bellied Woodpecker GloBI  
Additional detail Red-billed Gull GloBI  
Additional detail Ring-billed Gull GloBI  
Additional detail Sand Martin GloBI  
Additional detail Seagulls GloBI  
Additional detail Sheep Tick GloBI  
Additional detail Small Cats GloBI  
Additional detail Starlings GloBI  
Additional detail Starlings GloBI  
Additional detail Syngamidae GloBI  
Additional detail Syngamus GloBI  
Additional detail Thrushes GloBI  
Additional detail Western Bluebird GloBI  
Additional detail Wildcat GloBI  
Additional detail Wood Duck GloBI  
Additional detail Wood Ducks and Mandarin Ducks GloBI  
Additional detail Woodpecker GloBI  
Additional detail Woodpeckers GloBI  
water nitrate concentration min
Additional detail 0.17 µmol/L OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 12.83 µmol/L OBIS Environmental Information  
water temperature min
Additional detail 7.57 degrees Celsius OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 16.54 degrees Celsius OBIS Environmental Information  
water silicate concentration min
Additional detail 0.99 µmol/L OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 11.14 µmol/L OBIS Environmental Information  
water phosphate concentration min
Additional detail 0.26 µmol/L OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 0.73 µmol/L OBIS Environmental Information  
water dissolved O2 concentration min
Additional detail 5.63 mL/L OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 8.18 mL/L OBIS Environmental Information  
water O2 saturation min
Additional detail 99.52 percent OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 108.89 percent OBIS Environmental Information  
  • has predator
    is consumed for energetic or other nutritional needs (by another organism)
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/HasPredator
has predator
Additional detail Bald Eagle GloBI  
Additional detail Barn Owl GloBI  
Additional detail Barn-owls GloBI  
Additional detail Barn-owls GloBI  
Additional detail Bird Hawks GloBI  
Additional detail Bird Hawks GloBI  
Additional detail Bird Hawks GloBI  
Additional detail Buzzards GloBI  
Additional detail Cats GloBI  
Additional detail Cooper's Hawk GloBI  
Additional detail Cooper's Hawk GloBI  
Additional detail Cooper's Hawk GloBI  
Additional detail Eagles GloBI  
Additional detail Eagles GloBI  
Additional detail Eagles GloBI  
Additional detail Eagles GloBI  
Additional detail Eared Owls GloBI  
Additional detail Eastern Screech Owl GloBI  
Additional detail Eastern Screech Owl GloBI  
Additional detail Falcons GloBI  
Additional detail Fish Eagles GloBI  
Additional detail Horned Owls GloBI  
Additional detail Long-eared Owl GloBI  
Additional detail Megascops GloBI  
Additional detail Megascops GloBI  
Additional detail Owls GloBI  
Additional detail Owls GloBI  
Additional detail Red-tailed Hawk GloBI  
Additional detail Small Cats GloBI  
Additional detail Wildcat GloBI  
elevation median
Additional detail 121.0 m Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)  
mean Additional detail 142.2 m Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)  
min Additional detail 3.3 m Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)  
max Additional detail 2,710.5 m Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF)  
water salinity min
Additional detail 6.43 PSU OBIS Environmental Information  
max Additional detail 35.28 PSU OBIS Environmental Information  

Life History and Behavior

Data about <i>Sturnus vulgaris</i>
nest type
Additional detail cavity
  • cavity
    The nest is placed in a cavity with a narrow/protected entrance.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/nestCavity
Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
developmental mode
Additional detail altricial
  • altricial
    Parent(s) provide food and thermoregulation (e.g., passerines).
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/altricial
Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
foraging time
Additional detail diurnal Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
parental care
Additional detail occasionally breeds cooperatively
  • occasionally breeds cooperatively
    The species has been known to breed cooperatively, with nonparents providing care.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/occasionalCooperativeBreeding
Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
clutch/brood/litter size
Additional detail 5 AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
log10 productivity
Additional detail -0.094 Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  
litters per year
Additional detail 2 per year AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
total life span max
Additional detail 22.9 years AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
onset of fertility
Additional detail 1.0 years female AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
Additional detail 1.0 years male AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
growth rate
Additional detail 0.41 per day AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
  • prenatal development duration
    The duration of the development from fertilized, deposited or implanted egg to hatching/birth. Corresponds to egg incubation duration in oviparous animals and to gestation period duration in viviparous animals.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/PrenatalDevelopmentDuration
prenatal development duration
Additional detail 12 days AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
  • initial mortality rate
    The initial mortality rate (IMR) represents the mortality rate independently of the ageing process. Though there are different methods, the IMR is typically estimated from the mortality rate prior to its exponential increase with age, which can be obtained from the mortality curve (by looking at the baseline mortality prior to its exponential increase) or, for mice, by using t = 0.25 in the Gompertz equation.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/InitialMortalityRate
initial mortality rate
Additional detail 0.5 per year AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
  • mortality rate doubling time
    The mortality rate doubling time (MRDT) is considered to be a measure of the rate of ageing. It is estimated from the slope of the Gompertz curve by: MRDT = 0.693/G where G is the exponential (Gompertz) mortality rate coefficient.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/MortalityRateDoublingTime
mortality rate doubling time
Additional detail 8 years AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  
migratory status
Additional detail migratory Energetics, lifestyle, and reproduction in birds (Sibly et al. 2012)  

Physiology and Cell Biology

Data about <i>Sturnus vulgaris</i>
  • basal metabolic rate
    Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the amount of energy expended daily by humans and other animals at rest. Rest is defined as existing in a neutrally temperate environment while in the post-absorptive state.
    http://purl.bioontology.org/ontology/SNOMEDCT/165109007
basal metabolic rate
Additional detail 0.88 Watts AnAge Database of Animal Ageing and Longevity  

Conservation

Data about <i>Sturnus vulgaris</i>
population trend
Additional detail Decreasing IUCN  
conservation status
Additional detail least concern
  • least concern
    A taxon is Least Concern when it has been evaluated against the criteria and does not qualify for Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable or Near Threatened. Widespread and abundant taxa are included in this category.
    http://eol.org/schema/terms/leastConcern
IUCN  
extinction status
Additional detail extant Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology  

Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Data about <i>Sturnus vulgaris</i>
invasive in
Additional detail Australia Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail Bermuda Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail Botswana Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail New Zealand Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail USA Global Invasive Species Listings  
not invasive in
Additional detail Africa Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail Asia Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail Europe Global Invasive Species Listings  
Additional detail Ghana Global Invasive Species Listings  

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