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Overview

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: RESIDENT: from central and southern India and Sri Lanka. Introduced and established in Hawaiian Islands (Oahu), Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Venezuela, and Japan. Reportedly bred in the 1960s in Florida but not established; this record may also refer to L. ATRICAPILLA (AOU 2000).

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Physical Description

Size

Length: 12 cm

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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Second growth, scrub, grassland, cultiv. land, marshes, and around houses. In Puerto Rico prefers high grass next to sugar cane fields, "swampy" areas, or canals (Raffaele 1983). Hawaii: golf courses, grassy roadsides, weedy margins of cane fields. In native range, frequently nests in vegetation above water. In Puerto Rico, nests 1-3 m above ground in dense sugar cane (Raffaele 1983); also found nesting in clumps of CYPERUS growing on top of coconut palm stumps in lagoon (as at Humacao, Burger and Gochfeld 1989).

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Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
  • Freshwater
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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: See Raffaele (1989) for details on diet in Puerto Rico (where SORGHUM seeds are an important food).

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General Ecology

Forms small to large flocks.

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Clutch size usually is 4-5 (Raffaele 1983).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Lonchura malacca

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 3 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNGCCTGAGCCGGAATAGTAGGTACGGCCCTAAGCCTCCTCATTCGAGCAGAACTAGGCCAACCCGGAGCCCTACTAGAAGACGACCAAGTTTACAACGTTGTCGTCACAGCCCATGCTTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTCATAGTTATACCTATTATAATCGGGGGGTTCGGAAACTGACTAGTCCCCTTAATAATCGGAGCCCCAGATATAGCATTCCCACGAATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGACTCCTTCCCCCCTCATTCCTTCTACTACTAGCATCCTCAACAGTAGAAGCAGGGGCCGGAACAGGCTGAACAGTATATCCACCACTAGCCGGAAACTTAGCCCACGCCGGAGCCTCAGTAGACCTAGCCATCTTCTCACTGCACCTAGCAGGTATCTCCTCTATCCTAGGGGCAATCAACTTCATCACAACAGCAATCAACATAAAACCGCCCGCCCTGTCACAATACCAAACCCCCCTATTCGTGTGATCCATCTTAATTACCGCAGTCCTACTCCTTCTATCTCTCCCCGTTCTCGCTGCAGGAATCACAATACTTCTCACAGACCGCAACCTAAACACAACATTCTTCGACCCCGCAGGAGGAGGAGACCCAGTACTGTACCAGCACCTATTCTGATTCTTTGGCCACCCAGAAGTCTACATCCTAATCCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Lonchura malacca

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 3
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as locally common (Clement 1999).

Population Trend
Stable
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Uses

Comments: Kept as cage bird.

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Wikipedia

Tricoloured Munia

The tricoloured munia (Lonchura malacca) is an estrildid finch, native to India, Sri Lanka, Southern China, Taiwan and most of Southeast Asia. The species was also introduced to Guam, Jamaica, Palau, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Vanuatu and Venezuela. This species too like the chestnut munia has been known as the black-headed munia in the past. Immature birds have pale brown upperparts, lack the dark head found in adults, and have uniform buff underparts that can be confused with immatures of other munias such as the scaly-breasted munia.

Taxonomic note[edit]

LonchuraMalacca.svg

The chestnut munia was formerly considered conspecific with this species. Estrildinae may have originated in India and dispersed thereafter (towards Africa and Pacific Ocean habitats).[2]

Habitat[edit]

The tricoloured munia is a small gregarious bird which feeds mainly on grain and other seeds. It inhabits wet grassland habitats. It may also be found in tropical lowland moist forest habitats.

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Lonchura malacca". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Arnaiz-Villena, A; Ruiz-del-Valle V; Gomez-Prieto P; Reguera R; Parga-Lozano C; Serrano-Vela I (2009). "Estrildinae Finches (Aves, Passeriformes) from Africa, South Asia and Australia: a Molecular Phylogeographic Study". The Open Ornithology Journal 2: 29–36. doi:10.2174/1874453200902010029. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Formerly merged with L. ATRICAPILLA and called the Chestnut Mannikin (AOU 1998), but these species split by AOU (2000), following Restall (1995). L. FERRUGINOSA often has been considered conspecific with L. MALACCA; treated as separate species by Sibley and Monroe (1990).

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