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Range DescriptionThis species was common and widely distributed in the 1890s on Kaua`i in the Hawaiian Islands (U.S.A.). During 1968-1973, the total population was estimated at 6,832 (966 standard error), when it was recorded on the Laau ridge and was fairly widespread in Koke'e (USFWS 1983). Since then, the population has declined and the species has retreated from the Koke`e region and the fringes of the Alaka`i region, and is now uncommon to rare in the Alaka`i (Pratt et al. 1987, Pratt 1993, 1994). Recent unpublished survey data indicate dramatic declines (85-89% since 1968-1973) and a decline of c. 64% in its core area in the Alaka`i Swamp from 1970 to 2000 (Anon 2007). The population was estimated to number 1,312 530 birds, based on surveys conducted in April and May 2007 (Hawaii Division of Forestry and Wildlife and USGS, unpublished.data), occupying an area of just 36 km2 (Foster et al. 2004). The most recent estimates from 2012 suggest the population has decreased further to 468 individuals (231-916, 95% CI) (L. Crampton et al. in litt. 2015).