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Range DescriptionMelamprosops phaeosoma is endemic to Maui in the Hawaiian Islands (USA), where it was discovered in 1973 in the Ko`olau Forest Reserve on the north-eastern flanks of Haleakala (Pratt et al. 1997, Rosa et al. 1998), and estimated to number fewer than 200 birds. During 1975-1985, there was a rapid decline in density in the upper Hanawi watershed (Mountainspring et al. 1990), the last area from which it was known. In 1995, only five to seven birds were known but, by mid-1997, only three individuals could be found (two male, one possibly female), each with distinct home ranges in Hanawi Natural Area Reserve (NAR) and the immediately adjacent Haleakala National Park (Baker 2000). One of three known individuals was captured in September 2004 but died on 28 November 2004 (K. Swinnerton in litt. 2006, VanderWerf et al. 2006). The two other individuals may both have been male, but neither have been seen since 2003 and 2004 (K. Swinnerton in litt. 2006) and are likely to have now died (if alive, both birds would be a minimum of 12 years old in 2008 [K. Swinnerton in litt. 2006]). No other individuals have been located since 1998 despite almost constant presence of researchers in the field in recent years (K. Swinnerton in litt. 2006), but it is still possible, albeit unlikely, that a few unlocated individuals may exist in the wild (VanderWerf et al. 2006).