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Range DescriptionHemignathus parvus is endemic to Kaua`i in the Hawaiian Islands (USA), where it occurred almost throughout the island in the 19th century but, by 1900, had become uncommon to rare in lowland forests (Lepson 1997). In 1968-1973, surveys estimated 24,230 birds, largely restricted to upper elevations (USFWS 1983). Surveys of the Alaka`i and KÃ´ke`e areas in 2000 yielded an estimate of c.34,500 individuals in these areas (Foster et al. 2004). In 1992, Hurricane Iniki devastated forests throughout Kaua`i and all bird populations on the island appeared to have been drastically reduced (Pratt 1993, 1994). However, it would seem that this species has recovered and appears to be increasing (Pratt 1994, Foster et al. 2004). In 2003, the total population was put at 44,359 individuals (USFWS in litt. 2003).