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Range DescriptionBangsia arcaei occurs in three disjunct populations: on the Caribbean slope of Costa Rica from extreme south-east Guanacaste to Cartago; in central Bocas del Toro, central Chiriqu, Veraguas, and Cocl, Panama; and in the Cerro Jefe/Cerro Brewster area of east Panam province and extreme west San Blas, Panama (Ridgely and Gywnne 1989, Isler and Isler 1999). It has also been reported from the Serrana del Darin in Colombia (per Donegan et al. 2011, O. Cortes in litt. 2011). Its range probably includes the serranas de San Blas and del Darin in Panama (Ridgely and Gywnne 1989), the Cordillera de Talamanca, Costa Rica (F. G. Stiles in litt. 1999), and contiguous mountains in west Panama, but it has yet to be recorded in these areas (Ridgely and Gywnne 1989, Stiles and Skutch 1989, F. G. Stiles in litt. 1999). The population estimate for Costa Rican Important Bird Areas is 2,500-3,900 mature individuals (J. Criado et al. in litt. 2007, Snchez et al. 2009), implying that there are fewer than 10,000 mature individuals in total.