The following bibliography has been generated by bringing together all references provided by our content partners. There may be duplication.
- Hasle, Grethe R., and Erik E. Syvertsen / Carmelo R. Tomas, ed. 1997. Chapter 2: Marine Diatoms. Identifying Marine Phytoplankton. 5-385
- Round, F. E., R. M. Crawford, and D. G. Mann. 1990. The Diatoms: Biology and Morphology of the Genera. 747