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West Africa (resident): Guinea - W Cameroon - NW Angola (pulih, angolensis)
East Africa (intra-African migrant): breeds in SE DR Congo, S Tanzania to E Zambia, and NE South Africa, migrating north to region from NE DR Congo and S Central African Republic to S Kenya (longipennis); vagrant rest of E South Africa, 1 record Ethiopia.
Habitat and Ecology
Forest with dense undergrowth
Resident (West Africa) and intra-African migrant (East Africa)
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
The African pitta (Pitta angolensis) is a species of bird in the Pittidae family. It is a locally common to uncommon species, resident and migratory in the west, and an intra-African migrant between equatorial and southeastern Africa. They are elusive and hard to observe despite their brightly coloured plumage, and their loud, explosive calls are infrequently heard. The plump, somewhat thrush-like birds forage on leaf litter under the canopy of riparian or coastal forest and thickets, or climax miombo forest, where they may stand motionless for long periods. Breeding birds will however call and display from the mid-canopy. The green-breasted pitta replaces it in the interior of tropical rainforests.
Sexes are alike. The crown, face and ear coverts are solid black, and the throat is pale salmon pink. The broad eyebrow is buff to brownish buff. The flanks, breast and side of neck are a mustard yellow, washed olive on the upper breast. Some western birds have the breast very greenish. The wing coverts are deep green and tipped turquoise blue, or black and tipped turquoise and royal blue. The mantle and back are green, and the rump and upper tail coverts pale turquoise blue. The wings are rounded, and the primaries are black with pale and white tips. The bases of the central primaries form a white square, conspicuous in flight or display. The belly and undertail coverts are crimson red, and the legs are pink. Immature birds have a duller plumage with a buffy-pink vent.
It is a migratory species to southeastern Africa and the Congo basin. Its breeding habitat in southeastern Africa is deciduous, lowland riparian forest or thicket with intermittent dense understorey and small sub-canopy glades. On migration however, they may sojourn at any areas of bush or woodland. Fallen dead trees and open branches are favoured perches when performing their peculiar bouncing display. They are more numerous in undisturbed vegetation, and the opening up of the riparian woodland by elephants may reduce their habitat.
Habits and foraging
They forage singly on leaf litter, where they scratch to uncover insects and molluscs. They may flit the tail as they walk, and run or jump to a low branch when alarmed. It has various call notes, including a querulous scolding "skeeow", noted by Moreau, and a short, deep trill followed by a wing-clap. A croaking call may be heard during migration. They have a fast and direct flight.
They are probably monogamous, and display for a few weeks after arrival. Displaying birds utter a far-carrying and explosive "quoip" as they leap from a lateral branch in mid-canopy. At the same time the wings are opened to reveal the white bases to the primary feathers. Pairs may be spaced 150 metres from one another.
The bulky, untidy nest is a dome-shape structure composed of small sticks and grass. It is placed 2 to 4 metres above ground in the fork of a sapling, or in the thorny and leafy branches of Acacia, Ziziphus, Ximenia or Dichrostachys. A projecting lip beside the side entrance is used as a landing platform. Egg-laying takes place from November to December in southeastern Africa, and the birds fall silent once incubation starts. Three to four eggs are laid, that are flecked with grey and blackish-brown near the thicker end. The nestlings are altricial and nidicolous.
Race P. a. longipennis spends the austral winter in the western Ugandan forests as far north as Budongo, and coastal Kenya as far north as Gedi ruins. A bird found at Minziro Forest in northwestern Tanzania was in heavy moult, suggestive that the area is on the southeastern fringe of the non-breeding range.
They arrive in southern Africa from late October, though mainly in November and early December. They seldom breed north of the Rukwa Valley and Rufiji River in Tanzania, and no further south than central Mozambique. They depart again in February, though occasionally as late as April. Ringing studies in the Pugu hills and Mufindi have confirmed the timing of northwestward migration. Exhausted and perished birds are regularly found during migration, especially November to December and April to June. Southward migrating birds sometimes overshoot when they follow moist tropical fronts (at night), which may account for their vagrancy in the north-eastern Transvaal and Zimbabwean plateau.
Races and range
- P. a. pulih Fraser, 1843 – coastal West Africa
- P. a. angolensis Vieillot, 1816 – southern Cameroon to northern Angola
- P. a. longipennis Reichenow, 1901 – central to east Africa
The western races occur in Angola, Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Togo. Race P. a. longipennis occurs in Burundi, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
A decline has been noted in the coastal forests of Kenya after 1983. Concern has been expressed about lighted buildings in coastal Tanzania, which might pose a collision risk, as the birds are nocturnal migrants. Breeding habitat in the Zambezi valley has been impacted by elephants and agricultural expansion. Habitat loss and fragmentation is ongoing.
- BirdLife International (2012). "Pitta angolensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Lambert, F., Woodcock, M. (1996). Pittas, broadbills and asities. Robertsbridge, U.K.: Pica Press. ISBN 1873403240.
- Britton, P. L. (ed.) (1980). Birds of East Africa: their habitat, status and distribution. Nairobi: East Africa Natural History Society. p. 112.
- Tree, A. J. Angola Pitta. South African Bird Atlas Project (SABAP).
- Zimmerman, Dale A. et al. (1999). Birds of Kenya and Northern Tanzania. Princeton University Press. p. 495. ISBN 0691010226.
- "African Pitta". Preliminary Map. Tanzania Bird Atlas. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
- Terry Stevenson, John Fanshawe (2004). Birds of East Africa: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi. Helm Field Guides. p. 278. ISBN 0713673478.
- Borrow, Nik. "The Internet Bird Collection". Photos: African Pitta (Pitta angolensis). Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Tarboton, Warwick (2001). A Guide to the Nests and Eggs of Southern African Birds. Cape Town: Struik. p. 141. ISBN 1-86872-616-9.
- Irwin, M. P. S. (1981). The Birds of Zimbabwe. Salisbury: Quest Publishing. ISBN 086-9251-554.
- "African Pitta (Pitta angolensis) - HBW 8, p. 149". Pittas (Pittidae). The Internet Bird Collection. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Christie, D. (2003). Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 8: Broadbills to Tapaculos. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.
- Encyclopedia of Animals: Mammals, Birds, Reptiles and Amphibians. Harold G. Cogger, Edwin Gould, Joseph Forshaw