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Overview

Brief Summary

Setophaga coronata

A medium-sized (5-6 inches) wood warbler, the Yellow-rumped Warbler occurs in two geographically-linked color groups. Summer males from the eastern (Myrtle) group are streaked gray above and white below with a black face mask, black breast, white chin, and conspicuous yellow patches on the head, wings, and rump. Summer males from the western (Audubon’s) group have more extensive black on the breast and a yellow throat, but are otherwise similar to eastern males. Females of both groups are duller and browner than the males, and all birds become dull brown above and pale below (while retaining the conspicuous yellow patches) during the winter. This species may be distinguished from the similarly-patterned Magnolia Warbler (Setophaga magnolia) by that species’ heavily streaked breast and broader tail. The eastern form of the Yellow-rumped Warbler breeds across Alaska, Canada, and at higher elevations in the northeastern United States; wintering in the southeastern U.S., the Mid-Atlantic region, the Pacific coast from Washington to California, and the West Indies. The western form breeds in the Pacific Northwest, the mountains of northern California, and in the interior west; wintering in the southern California and the southwest. Both forms winter from the U.S.border south to Central America; the western form also breeds locally in the mountains of Mexico and Guatemala. Yellow-rumped Warblers primarily breed in northern and high-mountain evergreen forest habitats. In winter, this species may be found in open forest, thickets, and scrub as well as locally in urban and suburban areas. Yellow-rumped Warblers primarily eat small insects and spiders, but, more so than most other wood warblers, this species also eats fruits and berries during the winter. In appropriate habitat, Yellow-rumped Warblers may be observed foraging for invertebrates and berries in the tree canopy or in the undergrowth. Birdwatchers may also listen for this species’ song, a series of high-pitched warbling notes petering out at the end. Yellow-rumped Warblers are primarily active during the day, but, like many migratory songbirds, this species migrates at night.

Threat Status: Least concern

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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: CORONATA breeds from Alaska and Mackenzie south through Canada to north-central and northeastern U.S.; winters from northwestern, central, and east-central U.S., eastern Mexico (including Yucatan Peninsula), through Central America to Panama (and accidently into northern Colombia and Venezuela), and in Caribbean from the Bahamas through the Greater Antilles, rarely as far east as Virgin Islands. AUDUBONI breeds from British Columbia south through the western U.S. into Baja California; winters from southwestern Canada south throughout western Mexico through Guatemala and uncommonly to Honduras. NIGRIFRONS breeds (and is probably a permanent resident) from northwestern Chihuahua south through the Sierra Madre Occidental through Durango and probably to Jalisco. GOLDMANI is a permanent resident of the highlands of western Guatemala and adjacent Chiapas.

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Geographic Range

The Yellow-rumped Warbler has a large breeding range. During the spring and summer in the western side of its range, it can be found as far north as central Alaska and as far south as Central America. Its breeding range stretches across Canada, but in the eastern United states, the Yellow-Rumped Warbler is only seen as far south as the Great Lakes states.

The winter range extends from the southern states to the West Indies and Central America. The Yellow-rumped Warbler is a facultative migrant (it moves with food availability and weather) and so has a drastically changing winter range depending on yearly conditions (Stokes and Stokes 1996; Granlund 1999).

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native )

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Geographic Range

The Yellow-rumped Warbler has a large breeding range. During the spring and summer in the western side of its range, it can be found as far north as central Alaska and as far south as Central America. Its breeding range stretches across Canada, but in the eastern United states, the Yellow-Rumped Warbler is only seen as far south as the Great Lakes states.

The winter range extends from the southern states to the West Indies and Central America. The Yellow-rumped Warbler is a facultative migrant (it moves with food availability and weather) and so has a drastically changing winter range depending on yearly conditions (Stokes and Stokes 1996; Granlund 1999).

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native )

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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

Birds of either sex in all plumages have a yellow rump and a yellow patch on their side just in front of each wing. During the breeding season, male and female also have a yellow crown patch and white tail patches. There are two subspecies (previously considered separate species), the north and eastern Myrtle Warbler and the western Audubon's Warbler. The breeding male Myrtle Warbler has white eyebrows, a white throat, and white sides of neck while the Audubon's Warbler has no eyebrows and a yellow throat. Females and non-breeding males show the same basic pattern but are duller in color than their breeding counterparts (Stokes and Stokes 1996; Dunn 1999; Georgia Wildlife Website 2000).

Average mass: 11.5 g.

Average basal metabolic rate: 0.1895 W.

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Physical Description

Birds of either sex in all plumages have a yellow rump and a yellow patch on their side just in front of each wing. During the breeding season, male and female also have a yellow crown patch and white tail patches. There are two subspecies (previously considered separate species), the north and eastern Myrtle Warbler and the western Audubon's Warbler. The breeding male Myrtle Warbler has white eyebrows, a white throat, and white sides of neck while the Audubon's Warbler has no eyebrows and a yellow throat. Females and non-breeding males show the same basic pattern but are duller in color than their breeding counterparts (Stokes and Stokes 1996; Dunn 1999; Georgia Wildlife Website 2000).

Average mass: 11.5 g.

Average basal metabolic rate: 0.1895 W.

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Size

Length: 14 cm

Weight: 13 grams

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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Nests in forests or open woodlands. In migration and winter found in open forests, woodlands, savanna, roadsides, pastures, and scrub habitat (incl. mangrove thickets in Puerto Rico). May be seen in parks and gardens. Nests on branches 1-15 m above ground.

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Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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A highly adaptable bird, the Yellow-rumped Warbler can be found in a variety of habitats including coniferous forest, mixed woodlands, deciduous forest, pine plantation, bogs, forest edges, and openings. In the winter it is often found in brushy thickets of bayberry and wax myrtle (Stokes and Stokes 1996; Granlund 1999).

Terrestrial Biomes: taiga ; forest

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A highly adaptable bird, the Yellow-rumped Warbler can be found in a variety of habitats including coniferous forest, mixed woodlands, deciduous forest, pine plantation, bogs, forest edges, and openings. In the winter it is often found in brushy thickets of bayberry and wax myrtle (Stokes and Stokes 1996; Granlund 1999).

Terrestrial Biomes: taiga ; forest

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Depth range based on 1 specimen in 1 taxon.
Water temperature and chemistry ranges based on 1 sample.

Environmental ranges
  Depth range (m): 0 - 0
  Temperature range (°C): 14.435 - 14.435
  Nitrate (umol/L): 0.914 - 0.914
  Salinity (PPS): 33.299 - 33.299
  Oxygen (ml/l): 5.991 - 5.991
  Phosphate (umol/l): 0.435 - 0.435
  Silicate (umol/l): 2.871 - 2.871
 
Note: this information has not been validated. Check this *note*. Your feedback is most welcome.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Basically a long-distance migrant in the U.S. and Canada; migrations may be more localized in some areas of the West. Extent of migration varies annually depending on environmental conditions. Arrives in Puerto Rico usually in November, departs by March-April (Raffaele 1983). In Costa Rica, often appears by mid-September but not regular before mid-October, departs by late March (Stiles and Skutch 1989).

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Feeds on insects (ants, wasps, flys, beetles, mosquitoes, etc.), spiders, some berries and seeds. May drink tree sap. In fall, winter, and spring in the eastern U.S., feeds extensively on MYRICA fruits (Place and Stiles, 1992, Auk 109:334-345). Forages by moving slowly over trunks and branches, also catches insects in flight, and hops on ground picking up small insects and spiders or plucking them from grass (Costa Rica, Stiles and Skutch 1989).

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Food Habits

The Yellow-Rumped Warbler feeds mainly on insects in the summer and on berries and fruit in the winter. Yellow-rumped Warblers are capable of assimilating 80% of wax-coated berries such as bayberries. They have developed unique gastrointestinal traits to allow them to subsist on this unusual food source.

The Yellow-Rumped Warbler comes to bird feeders for fruit and suet (Gill 1995; Stokes and Stokes 1996; Granlund 1999).

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Food Habits

The Yellow-Rumped Warbler feeds mainly on insects in the summer and on berries and fruit in the winter. Yellow-rumped Warblers are capable of assimilating 80% of wax-coated berries such as bayberries. They have developed unique gastrointestinal traits to allow them to subsist on this unusual food source.

The Yellow-Rumped Warbler comes to bird feeders for fruit and suet (Gill 1995; Stokes and Stokes 1996; Granlund 1999).

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Associations

Known predators

Dendroica coronata (pygmy nuthatch, Audubon warbler) is prey of:
Accipiter striatus

Based on studies in:
USA: Arizona (Forest, Montane)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • D. I. Rasmussen, Biotic communities of Kaibab Plateau, Arizona, Ecol. Monogr. 11(3):228-275, from p. 261 (1941).
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Known prey organisms

Dendroica coronata (pygmy nuthatch, Audubon warbler) preys on:
Aphididae
Cicadellidae
Coleoptera

Based on studies in:
USA: Arizona (Forest, Montane)

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
  • D. I. Rasmussen, Biotic communities of Kaibab Plateau, Arizona, Ecol. Monogr. 11(3):228-275, from p. 261 (1941).
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General Ecology

In winter, generally occurs in flocks; occasionally solitary (Rappole and Warner 1980).

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
6.9 years.

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Lifespan/Longevity

Average lifespan

Status: captivity:
6.9 years.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 6.9 years (wild)
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Reproduction

Clutch size is 4-5. Incubation lasts 12-13 days, by female. Nestlings are tended by both parents, brooded by female. Young leave nest in 12-14 days (Harrison 1978)

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The Yellow-rumped Warbler breeds in monogamous pairs. A neat cup made of twigs, bark strips, rootlets, and lined with grasses, hair, and feathers serves as a nest for the Yellow-rumped Warbler. The nest is placed on a horizontal branch near the trunk of a conifer tree 5 to 50 feet in height (the average height of the nest is 20 feet). The outside diameter of the nest is 7.6 to 8.9 cm.

Four to five cream eggs with brown spots are laid, and incubation lasts 12 to 13 days. The chicks are altricial and fledge 12-14 days after hatching. Two broods may be raised in a season (Stokes and Stokes 1996; Granlund 1999; Georgia Wildlife Website 2000).

Average time to hatching: 12 days.

Average eggs per season: 4.

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The Yellow-rumped Warbler breeds in monogamous pairs. A neat cup made of twigs, bark strips, rootlets, and lined with grasses, hair, and feathers serves as a nest for the Yellow-rumped Warbler. The nest is placed on a horizontal branch near the trunk of a conifer tree 5 to 50 feet in height (the average height of the nest is 20 feet). The outside diameter of the nest is 7.6 to 8.9 cm.

Four to five cream eggs with brown spots are laid, and incubation lasts 12 to 13 days. The chicks are altricial and fledge 12-14 days after hatching. Two broods may be raised in a season (Stokes and Stokes 1996; Granlund 1999; Georgia Wildlife Website 2000).

Average time to hatching: 12 days.

Average eggs per season: 4.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Dendroica coronata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 34 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNCAACCCGGAGCCCTTCTGGGGGATGACCAAGTCTACAACGTAGTAGTCACGGCCCATGCTTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTTATGCCGATTATAATCGGAGGATTTGGAAACTGACTAGTCCCCCTAATAATCGGAGCCCCAGACATAGCATTCCCACGAATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGACTACTCCCACCATCATTCCTTCTCCTCCTAGCATCATCCACAGTTGAAGCAGGCGTAGGTACAGGCTGAACAGTATACCCCCCACTAGCTGGCAACCTAGCCCATGCCGGAGCCTCAGTCGACCTCGCAATCTTCTCCCTACACCTGGCCGGTATTTCCTCAATCCTCGGAGCAATCAACTTCATTACAACAGCAATTAATATGAAACCTCCTGCCCTTTCACAGTACCAAACCCCACTATTCGTTTGATCAGTCCTAATCACTGCAGTCCTTCTACTCCTTTCCCTTCCAGTTCTAGCTGCAGGAATCACAATGCTCCTCACAGACCGCAACCTCAACACTACATTCTTCGACCCTGCTGGAGGAGGAGACCCCGTCCTATACCAACACCTCTTCTGATTCTTCGGCCACCCAGAAGTCTACATCCTAATCCTC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Dendroica coronata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 34
Specimens with Barcodes: 37
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5B - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5B,N5N : N5B: Secure - Breeding, N5N: Secure - Nonbreeding

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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The Yellow-rumped Warbler is abundant throughout its range and is probably the most abundant of all warbler species. The Breeding Bird Survey and the Christmas Bird Count in the last 25 years have shown that populations of the Yellow-rumped Warbler are rising at around 2% (or less) per year (Stokes and Stokes 1996).

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

US Migratory Bird Act: protected

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

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The Yellow-rumped Warbler is abundant throughout its range and is probably the most abundant of all warbler species. The Breeding Bird Survey and the Christmas Bird Count in the last 25 years have shown that populations of the Yellow-rumped Warbler are rising at around 2% (or less) per year (Stokes and Stokes 1996).

US Migratory Bird Act: protected

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Population

Population Trend
Increasing
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

No known negative impacts on humans.

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

As an insect eater, the Yellow-rumped Warbler may benefit humans by eating potentially harmful (or painful) insects.

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Economic Importance for Humans: Negative

No known negative impacts on humans.

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

As an insect eater, the Yellow-rumped Warbler may benefit humans by eating potentially harmful (or painful) insects.

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Wikipedia

Yellow-rumped warbler

Four closely related North American bird forms—the eastern myrtle warbler (ssp coronata), its western counterpart, Audubon's warbler (ssp group auduboni), the northwest Mexican black-fronted warbler (ssp nigrifrons), and the Guatemalan Goldman's warbler (ssp goldmani)—are periodically lumped as the yellow-rumped warbler (Setophaga coronata).

In summer, males have streaked backs of black on slate blue and conspicuous yellow patches on the crown, flank, and rump

Classification[edit]

Since 1973, the American Ornithologists' Union has elected to merge these passerine birds as one species. The Myrtle form was apparently separated from the others by glaciation during the Pleistocene, and the Audubon's form may have originated more recently through hybridization between the myrtle warbler and the Mexican nigrifrons form.[2]

Distribution[edit]

Yellow-rumped warblers are some of the earliest warblers to arrive and latest to leave

The yellow-rumped warbler breeds from eastern North America west to the Pacific, and southward from there into Western Mexico. "Goldman's" yellow-rumped warbler is endemic to the highlands of Guatemala. The Myrtle and Audubon's forms are migratory, traveling to the southern U.S., Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean for winters. Among warblers it is one of the last to leave North America in the fall, and among the first to return. It is an occasional vagrant to the British Isles and Iceland.

Habitat[edit]

Yellow-rumped warblers spend the breeding season in mature coniferous and mixed coniferous-deciduous woodlands (such as in patches of aspen, birch, or willow). In the western U.S. and in the central Appalachian Mountains, they are found mostly in mountainous areas. In the Pacific Northwest and the Northeastern U.S., they occur all the way down to sea level wherever conifers are present. During winter, yellow-rumped warblers find open areas with fruiting shrubs or scattered trees, such as parks, streamside woodlands, open pine and pine-oak forest, dunes (where bayberries are common), and residential areas. On their tropical wintering grounds they live in mangroves, thorn scrub, pine-oak-fir forests, and shade coffee plantations.[3]

Description[edit]

This is a mid-sized New World warbler, though it is one of the largest species in the Setophaga genus (formerly Dendroica) which comprises a lion's share of the species in the family. In total length, the species can range from 12 to 15 cm (4.7 to 5.9 in) long, with a wingspan of 19 to 24 cm (7.5 to 9.4 in). Body mass can vary from 9.9 to 17.7 g (0.35 to 0.62 oz), though averages between 11 and 14 g (0.39 and 0.49 oz). Among standard measurements, the wing chord is 6.3 to 8.4 cm (2.5 to 3.3 in), the tail is 5 to 6.6 cm (2.0 to 2.6 in), the bill is 0.8 to 1.1 cm (0.31 to 0.43 in) and the tarsus is 1.8 to 2.2 cm (0.71 to 0.87 in).[4] In summers, males of both forms have streaked backs of black on slate blue, white wing patches, a streaked breast, and conspicuous yellow patches on the crown, flank, and rump. Audubon's warbler also sports a yellow throat patch, while the myrtle warbler has a white throat and eye stripe, and a contrasting black cheek patch. Females of both forms are more dull, with brown streaking front and back, but still have noticeable yellow rumps. Goldman's warbler, of Guatemala, resembles Audubon's but has a white lower border to the yellow throat and otherwise darker plumage; males replace the slate blue of Audubon's with black.

Behavior[edit]

These birds are one of North America's most abundant neotropical migrants. They are primarily insectivorous. The species is perhaps the most versatile foragers of all warblers. Beyond gleaning from leaves like other New World warblers, they often flit, flycatcher-like, out from their perches in short loops, to catch flying insects. Other places yellow-rumped warblers have been spotted foraging include picking at insects on washed-up seaweed at the beach, skimming insects from the surface of rivers and the ocean, picking them out of spiderwebs, and grabbing them off piles of manure. Common foods include caterpillars and other larvae, leaf beetles, bark beetles, weevils, ants, scale insects, aphids, grasshoppers, caddisflies, craneflies, and gnats, as well as spiders. They also eat spruce budworm, a serious forest pest, during outbreaks.[3]

When bugs are scarce, the myrtle warbler also enjoys eating fruit, and the wax-myrtle berries which gave it its name. It is the only warbler able to digest such waxy material. The ability to use these fruits allows it to winter farther north than other warblers, sometimes as far north as Newfoundland. Other commonly eaten fruits include juniper berries, poison ivy, poison oak, greenbrier, grapes, Virginia creeper and dogwood. They eat wild seeds such as from beach grasses and goldenrod, and they may come to feeders, where they'll take sunflower seeds, raisins, peanut butter, and suet. On their wintering grounds in Mexico they've been seen sipping the sweet honeydew liquid excreted by aphids. Male yellow-rumped warblers typically tend to forage higher in the trees than females do. While foraging with other warbler species, they sometimes aggressively displace other species, including pine warblers and Blackburnian warblers.[3]

They nest in coniferous and mixed woodlands, and lay 4–5 eggs. Females build the nest, sometimes using material the male carries to her. The nest is a cup of twigs, pine needles, grasses, and rootlets. She may also use moose, horse, and deer hair, moss, and lichens. She lines this cup with fine hair and feathers, sometimes woven into the nest in such a way that they curl up and over the eggs. The nest takes about 10 days to build. Nests are located on the horizontal branch of a conifer, anywhere from 1.2 to 15 m (3.9 to 49.2 ft) high. Tree species include hemlock, spruce, white cedar, pine, Douglas-fir, and larch or tamarack. They may build their nests far out on a main branch or tuck it close to the trunk in a secure fork of two or more branches. Occasionally nest are built in a deciduous tree such as a maple, oak or birch. The eggs are incubated for 12 to 13 days. Nestlings are helpless and naked at hatching but grow quickly. The young are brooded for 10 to 14 days, at which point they can fledge.[3]

The Yellow-rumped has a trill-like song of 4–7 syllables (tyew-tyew-tyew-tyew,tew-tew-tew) and an occasional check or chip call note.

Gallery[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Dendroica coronata". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Brelsford, Alan; Milá, Borja; Irwin, Darren E. "Hybrid origin of Audubon's warbler". Molecular Ecology. doi:10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05055.x. 
  3. ^ a b c d [1]
  4. ^ New World Warblers (Helm Field Guides) by Jon Curson. Christopher Helm Publishers (1993). 978-0713639322.
  • Howell, Steve N. G., and Sophie Webb (1994). A Guide to the Birds of Mexico and Northern Central America. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-854012-4. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (Lovette et al. 2010) indicate that all species formerly placed in Dendroica, one species formerly placed in Wilsonia (citrina), and two species formerly placed in Parula (americana and pitiayumi) form a clade with the single species traditionally placed in Setophaga (ruticilla). The generic name Setophaga has priority for this clade (AOU 2011).

Composed of two groups, formerly regarded as distinct species: auduboni (Audubon's Warbler) and coronata (Myrtle Warbler) (AOU 1998). D. coronata now considered to consist of D. c. auduboni, D. c. coronata, D. c. nigrifrons, and D. c. goldmani. See also DeBenedictis (1982) for taxonomic comments.

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