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Overview

Brief Summary

Setophaga magnolia

A medium-sized (4 ¾ inches) wood warbler, the male Magnolia Warbler is most easily identified by its dark gray back, streaked flanks, white wing patches, and bright yellow underparts with a conspicuous black face mask. Female Magnolia Warblers are similar to males, but are slightly duller and lack the white on the wings. Both sexes resemble the male Yellow-rumped Warbler (Setophaga coronata), but that species is less streaked below and lacks the Magnolia Warbler’s extensive yellow on the breast. The Magnolia Warbler breeds across southern Canada and the northeastern United States. This species is also present at higher elevations in the Appalachian Mountains as far south as Tennessee. In winter, Yellow-throated Warblers may be found in the West Indies, southern Mexico, and Central America. Magnolia Warblers breed in a variety of dense woodland habitats, particularly those largely composed of evergreen trees. In winter, this species may be found in humid tropical forests and tropical scrub. Magnolia Warblers primarily eat small invertebrates, including insects and spiders. In appropriate habitat, Magnolia Warblers may be observed foraging for insects on the ends of branches in the middle of the tree canopy. Birdwatchers may also listen for this species’ song, a whistled “weeta weeta weetsee. ” Magnolia Warblers are primarily active during the day, but, like many migratory songbirds, this species migrates at night.

Threat Status: Least concern

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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

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Global Range: BREEDING: northeastern British Columbia and western and southern Mackenzie to Newfoundland, south to southern Canada, central Wisconsin, central Michigan, northern Ohio, western Virginia, Maryland, and New England. NON-BREEDING: primarily from Veracruz through Yucatan peninsula south to Honduras; less commonly from Costa Rica to Panama and rarely in West Indies (rare and irregular in Puerto Rico, St. Thomas, and St. John).

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Geographic Range

The Magnolia Warbler, during breeding season, is found in central and southern Canada, down into the northern United States, such as in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. The warblers are commonly found in both the Appalachian Mountains as well as in the New England region, approximately as far south as North Carolina. In the winter however, the Magnolia Warbler migrates south, wintering from Mexico to Panama. It is occasionally found in the West Indies, the western and southern United States.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native )

  • Curson, J. 1994. New World Warblers. London: Christopher Helm Publishers.
  • Griscom, L., A. Sprunt Jr.. 1979. The Warblers of America. New York: Doubleday.
  • Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, 2001. "Magnolia Warbler" (On-line). Accessed March 20, 2002 at http://birds.cornell.edu/BOW/magwar/.
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Range

E North America; winters to Panama and West Indies.

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Geographic Range

The Magnolia Warbler, during breeding season, is found in central and southern Canada, down into the northern United States, such as in Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. The warblers are commonly found in both the Appalachian Mountains as well as in the New England region, approximately as far south as North Carolina. In the winter however, the Magnolia Warbler migrates south, wintering from Mexico to Panama. It is occasionally found in the West Indies, the western and southern United States.

Biogeographic Regions: nearctic (Native ); neotropical (Native )

  • Curson, J. 1994. New World Warblers. London: Christopher Helm Publishers.
  • Griscom, L., A. Sprunt Jr.. 1979. The Warblers of America. New York: Doubleday.
  • Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology, 2001. "Magnolia Warbler" (On-line). Accessed March 20, 2002 at http://birds.cornell.edu/BOW/magwar/.
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Physical Description

Morphology

Physical Description

The Magnolia Warbler is easily recognizable due to its distinctive yellow and black coloring. Its tail is black at the tip with large white spots which make up a band in the middle. The rump and most of its underparts of the Magnolia Warbler are yellow. It also has black streaks on its breast. Breeding males have a black face as well. Females are similar except that they also have more white on their wings as well as grey on their heads. Their colors tend to be a bit duller, and their patterns less distinct than those of the males. Juvenile Magnolia Warblers also tend to be duller in color, with more grey than black, as well as having some brown or olive coloring on the body. They also may have white bands around their eyes. The specific coloration patterns of the Magnolia Warbler varies greatly depending on the stage of life it is in (breeding or not-breeding, adult, juvenile, or first-year, male or female, etc.)

(Kulba & Reichwein, Date Unknown; Curson, 1994; Alsop, 2001)

Range mass: 6.6 to 12.6 g.

Average mass: 8 g.

Range length: 12 to 13 cm.

Average wingspan: 19.68 cm.

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes colored or patterned differently; male more colorful

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Physical Description

The Magnolia Warbler is easily recognizable due to its distinctive yellow and black coloring. Its tail is black at the tip with large white spots which make up a band in the middle. The rump and most of its underparts of the Magnolia Warbler are yellow. It also has black streaks on its breast. Breeding males have a black face as well. Females are similar except that they also have more white on their wings as well as grey on their heads. Their colors tend to be a bit duller, and their patterns less distinct than those of the males. Juvenile Magnolia Warblers also tend to be duller in color, with more grey than black, as well as having some brown or olive coloring on the body. They also may have white bands around their eyes. The specific coloration patterns of the Magnolia Warbler varies greatly depending on the stage of life it is in (breeding or not-breeding, adult, juvenile, or first-year, male or female, etc.)

(Kulba & Reichwein, Date Unknown; Curson, 1994; Alsop, 2001)

Range mass: 6.6 to 12.6 g.

Average mass: 8 g.

Range length: 12 to 13 cm.

Average wingspan: 19.68 cm.

Sexual Dimorphism: sexes colored or patterned differently; male more colorful

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Size

Length: 13 cm

Weight: 9 grams

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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Hemlocks, low dense thickets of spruce and fir, overgrown clearings, swamp and pond borders where small trees grow, forest edge. In British Columbia, breeds in mature, mixed forests and openings in mixed or coniferous woods where a dense conifer shrub layer has developed (Campbell et al. 2001). In migration and winter also in various open forest, woodland, scrub, and thicket habitats; usually secondary and disturbed woodland (Pashley 1989). BREEDING: Nests on branch among twigs and foliage of conifer, or by trunk, usually 4 m or less above ground.

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Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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The name of the Magnolia Warbler is misleading because it is actually rarely found in Magnolia trees. It was named by Alexander Wilson who happened to see one of these birds in a magnolia tree in the South, on its annual migration. The Magnolia Warbler is instead found in damp coniferous forests, which include trees like pine, red maple, spruce, hemlocks, and balsam firs. It tends to dwell in the lower parts of the trees.

(Kaufman, 1996; Alsop, 2001; Harrison, 1984; Griscom & Sprunt, 1979)

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest

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The name of the Magnolia Warbler is misleading because it is actually rarely found in Magnolia trees. It was named by Alexander Wilson who happened to see one of these birds in a magnolia tree in the South, on its annual migration. The Magnolia Warbler is instead found in damp coniferous forests, which include trees like pine, red maple, spruce, hemlocks, and balsam firs. It tends to dwell in the lower parts of the trees.

(Kaufman, 1996; Alsop, 2001; Harrison, 1984; Griscom & Sprunt, 1979)

Habitat Regions: temperate ; tropical ; terrestrial

Terrestrial Biomes: forest

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

In Costa Rica, most winter specimens were taken October-April; present from mid-September through April (Stiles and Skutch 1989).

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Gleans insects and spiders from bark of conifers (Terres 1980). Costa Rica: gleans insects and spiders from upper surfaces of leaves, sometimes pursues prey in air (Stiles and Skutch 1989). Also consumes small fruits in winter. In Jamaica in winter, prefers taller trees, forages between 1/4 and 1/2 way up; takes most prey from trees with thin broad leaves (Lack 1976). In Mexico in winter, forages in the upper third of the canopy where foliage is fairly dense and leaf size is small; leaves are the most common feeding substrate (Rappole and Warner 1980).

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Food Habits

The Magnolia Warbler feeds almost exclusively on insects. It forages for its food in the lower or middle branches of the trees. It picks insects off of tree needles, leaves, and twigs, as well as sometimes from the undersides of plants and under the bark of trees. Sometimes it will also hover to search for food and fly short distances to catch its prey. During bad weather, when insects can be hard to find, the Magnolia Warbler will also feed on berries.

Foods eaten include: beetles, moth caterpillars, leafhoppers, aphids, spiders, worms, flies, plant lice and berries.

(Kaufman, 1996; Curson, 1994; Griscom & Sprunt, 1979)

Animal Foods: insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods; terrestrial worms

Plant Foods: fruit

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Food Habits

The Magnolia Warbler feeds almost exclusively on insects. It forages for its food in the lower or middle branches of the trees. It picks insects off of tree needles, leaves, and twigs, as well as sometimes from the undersides of plants and under the bark of trees. Sometimes it will also hover to search for food and fly short distances to catch its prey. During bad weather, when insects can be hard to find, the Magnolia Warbler will also feed on berries.

Foods eaten include: beetles, moth caterpillars, leafhoppers, aphids, spiders, worms, flies, plant lice and berries.

(Kaufman, 1996; Curson, 1994; Griscom & Sprunt, 1979)

Animal Foods: insects; terrestrial non-insect arthropods; terrestrial worms

Plant Foods: fruit

Primary Diet: carnivore (Insectivore )

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Associations

Ecosystem Roles

The Magnolia Warbler eats insects which are harmful to woodland trees, such as plant lice, leaf hoppers, and beetles. The Magnolia Warbler also occasionally acts as a host species to the parasitic cowbird, which steals eggs and food from the warbler.

(Bent, 1953; Harrison, 1984)

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Predation

The Magnolia Warbler takes great care to hide its nest deep within the dense growth of the forest, in order to protect its eggs from predators. Cowbirds lay their eggs in Magnolia Warbler nests and the young cowbirds may eject eggs or young of their hosts. Hawks are known egg and young predators (Harrison, 1984; Bent, 1953)

Known Predators:

  • cowbirds (Molothrus)
  • hawks (Accipitridae)

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Ecosystem Roles

The Magnolia Warbler eats insects which are harmful to woodland trees, such as plant lice, leaf hoppers, and beetles. The Magnolia Warbler also occasionally acts as a host species to the parasitic cowbird, which steals eggs and food from the warbler.

(Bent, 1953; Harrison, 1984)

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Predation

The Magnolia Warbler takes great care to hide its nest deep within the dense growth of the forest, in order to protect its eggs from predators. Cowbirds lay their eggs in Magnolia Warbler nests and the young cowbirds may eject eggs or young of their hosts. Hawks are known egg and young predators (Harrison, 1984; Bent, 1953)

Known Predators:

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Known predators

Dendroica magnolia is prey of:
Accipitridae
Molothrus

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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Known prey organisms

Dendroica magnolia preys on:
Annelida
Arthropoda
Insecta

This list may not be complete but is based on published studies.
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General Ecology

Territorial in winter in Mexico (Rappole and Warner 1980).

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Life History and Behavior

Behavior

Communication and Perception

Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic

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Communication and Perception

Communication Channels: visual ; acoustic

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Life Expectancy

Lifespan/Longevity

The maximum lifespan of the Magnolia Warbler is recorded at 6 years and 11 months.

(Klimkiewicz, 2002)

Range lifespan

Status: wild:
7 (high) years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
96 months.

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Lifespan/Longevity

The maximum lifespan of the Magnolia Warbler is recorded at 6 years and 11 months.

(Klimkiewicz, 2002)

Range lifespan

Status: wild:
7 (high) years.

Average lifespan

Status: wild:
96 months.

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Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 8 years (wild)
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Reproduction

Eggs are laid in late May and June. Clutch size is 3-5 (usually 4). Incubation lasts 11-13 days, by female. Young are tended by both parents, leave nest at 8-10 days.

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The Magnolia Warbler is monogamous. During breeding season, the males grow very competitive and try to impress the females by showing off their distinctive coloring. The males also can get violent with each other at this time, fighting one another with their beaks and wings. Males also tend to sing cheerful tunes to the female they have chosen to mate with. (Alsop, 2001; Bent, 1953)

Mating System: monogamous

Magnolia Warblers create their nests in low tree branches or twigs, usually in the most dense areas of the forest. They seem to build rather messy nests, which are put together very carelessly, and are not very stable or secure. They are made up of twigs, weeds, hay, and grass.

The female Magnolia Warbler lays from 3-5 eggs at a time and they lay their eggs once a year. The eggs are white, creamy white, or sometimes greenish white. They are speckled with brown spots or splotches which can range from very dark to very light and very few to very many. The eggs are slightly glossy. They measure, on average, 16.3 by 12.3 millimeters. Incubation lasts 11 to 13 days.

After a chick hatches, its eyes open after about 3 or 4 days. The feathers become well developed after only about 8 or 9 days. This is also about the same time they first leave the nest and begin to find their own food.  (Curson, 1994; Kaufman, 1996; Bent, 1953)

Breeding season: May-June

Range eggs per season: 3 to 5.

Range time to hatching: 11 to 13 days.

Range fledging age: 8 to 10 days.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); oviparous

Average eggs per season: 4.

Females incubate the eggs and have a more active role in the raising of the young birds, but both the male and the female supply food to the young. Even after they fledge, baby birds remain close to one another and to their parents for about a month afterward. During this time, the parents continue to provide food for the young, however after this time they are on their own. (Bent, 1953; Alsop, 2001)

Parental Investment: altricial ; male parental care ; female parental care

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The Magnolia Warbler is monogamous. During breeding season, the males grow very competitive and try to impress the females by showing off their distinctive coloring. The males also can get violent with each other at this time, fighting one another with their beaks and wings. Males also tend to sing cheerful tunes to the female they have chosen to mate with. (Alsop, 2001; Bent, 1953)

Mating System: monogamous

Magnolia Warblers create their nests in low tree branches or twigs, usually in the most dense areas of the forest. They seem to build rather messy nests, which are put together very carelessly, and are not very stable or secure. They are made up of twigs, weeds, hay, and grass.

The female Magnolia Warbler lays from 3-5 eggs at a time and they lay their eggs once a year. The eggs are white, creamy white, or sometimes greenish white. They are speckled with brown spots or splotches which can range from very dark to very light and very few to very many. The eggs are slightly glossy. They measure, on average, 16.3 by 12.3 millimeters. Incubation lasts 11 to 13 days.

After a chick hatches, its eyes open after about 3 or 4 days. The feathers become well developed after only about 8 or 9 days. This is also about the same time they first leave the nest and begin to find their own food.  (Curson, 1994; Kaufman, 1996; Bent, 1953)

Breeding season: May-June

Range eggs per season: 3 to 5.

Range time to hatching: 11 to 13 days.

Range fledging age: 8 to 10 days.

Key Reproductive Features: iteroparous ; seasonal breeding ; gonochoric/gonochoristic/dioecious (sexes separate); sexual ; fertilization (Internal ); oviparous

Average eggs per season: 4.

Females incubate the eggs and have a more active role in the raising of the young birds, but both the male and the female supply food to the young. Even after they fledge, baby birds remain close to one another and to their parents for about a month afterward. During this time, the parents continue to provide food for the young, however after this time they are on their own. (Bent, 1953; Alsop, 2001)

Parental Investment: altricial ; male parental care ; female parental care

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Dendroica magnolia

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 26 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNCCGGAATAGTAGGTACCGCCCTAAGCCTCCTCATTCGAGCAGAACTAGACCAACCCGGAGCCCTTCTGGGAGACGACCAAGTCTACAACGTAGTCGTCACGGCCCATGCCTTTGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTTATGCCAATTATAATCGGAGGGTTCGGAAACTGACTAGTCCCTCTAATAATCGGAGCCCCAGACATAGCATTCCCACGAATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGACTACTCCCACCATCATTCCTCCTACTCCTAGCATCCTCCACAGTTGAAGCAGGCGTGGGTACTGGCTGAACAGTGTACCCCCCACTAGCTGGCAACCTAGCCCACGCCGGAGCCTCAGTCGACCTCGCAATCTTCTCCTTACACCTAGCCGGTATTTCCTCAATCCTCGGAGCAATCAACTTCATTACAACAGCAATTAACATGAAACCTCCCGCCCTCTCACAATACCAAACCCCACTATTCGTTTGATCAGTCCTAATCACTGCAGTCCTCCTACTTCTCTCTCTTCCAGTTCTGGCTGCAGGAATCACAATGCTCCTCACAGACCGCAACCTAAACACTACATTCTTCGACCCTGCTGGAGGAGGGGATCCAGTTCTATACCAACATCTTTTCTGATTCTTCGGCCATCCAGAAGTNAAAATCCTAATCCTCTC
-- end --

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Dendroica magnolia

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 26
Specimens with Barcodes: 29
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5B - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5B - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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There have been accounts of both an increase and decline in the number of Magnolia Warblers. However it is important to note that the Magnolia Warbler is quite vulnerable to a loss of habitat. As many eastern spruce and fir forests are declining, due mostly to air pollution, the population of Magnolia Warblers is also likely to decline.

(Alsop, 2001)

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

US Migratory Bird Act: protected

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

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There have been accounts of both an increase and decline in the number of Magnolia Warblers. However it is important to note that the Magnolia Warbler is quite vulnerable to a loss of habitat. As many eastern spruce and fir forests are declining, due mostly to air pollution, the population of Magnolia Warblers is also likely to decline.

(Alsop, 2001)

US Migratory Bird Act: protected

US Federal List: no special status

CITES: no special status

State of Michigan List: no special status

IUCN Red List of Threatened Species: least concern

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Population

Population Trend
Increasing
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Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems

Benefits

Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

The Magnolia Warbler eats many insects such as moth caterpillars, aphids, and plant lice which can be problems for humans.

(Griscom & Sprunt, 1979; Kaufman, 1996)

Positive Impacts: controls pest population

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Economic Importance for Humans: Positive

The Magnolia Warbler eats many insects such as moth caterpillars, aphids, and plant lice which can be problems for humans.

(Griscom & Sprunt, 1979; Kaufman, 1996)

Positive Impacts: controls pest population

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Wikipedia

Magnolia warbler

The magnolia warbler (Setophaga magnolia) is a member of the wood warbler family Parulidae. This warbler was first discovered in magnolia trees in the 19th century by famed ornithologist Alexander Wilson while in Mississippi.[2]

Description[edit]

First-year male magnolia warbler

This species is a moderately small New World warbler. It measures 11 to 13 cm (4.3 to 5.1 in) in length and spans 16 to 20 cm (6.3 to 7.9 in) across the wings. Body mass in adult birds can range from 6.6 to 12.6 g (0.23 to 0.44 oz), though weights have reportedly ranged up to 15 g (0.53 oz) prior to migration. Among standard measurements, the wing chord is 5.4 to 6.4 cm (2.1 to 2.5 in), the tail is 4.6 to 5.2 cm (1.8 to 2.0 in), the bill is 0.8 to 1 cm (0.31 to 0.39 in) and the tarsus is 1.7 to 1.85 cm (0.67 to 0.73 in).[3][4] The magnolia warbler can be distinguished by its coloration. The breeding males often have white, gray, and black backs with yellow on the sides; yellow and black-striped stomachs; white, gray, and black foreheads and beaks; distinct black tails with white stripes on the underside; and defined white patches on their wings, called wing bars.[5] Breeding females usually have the same type of coloration as the males, except that their colors are much duller. Immature warblers also resemble the same dull coloration of the females.[2] The yellow and black-striped stomachs help one to distinguish the males from other similar birds, like the prairie warbler and Kirtland's warbler (which, however, have a breeding range to the south and east of the magnolia warbler's).[5]

Distribution[edit]

The magnolia warbler is found in the northern parts of some Midwestern states and the very northeastern parts of the US, with states such as Minnesota and Wisconsin comprising its southernmost boundaries. However, it is mostly found across the northern parts of Canada, such as in Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec. During the winter, the warbler migrates through the eastern half of the United States to southern Mexico and Central America.[6] The warbler breeds in dense forests,[2] where it will most likely be found among the branches of young, densely packed, coniferous trees.[5] The magnolia warbler migrates to the warmer south in the winter, wintering in southeastern Mexico, Panama, and parts of the Caribbean. In migration it passes through the eastern part of the United States as far west as Oklahoma and Kansas.[7] During migration season, the magnolia warbler can also be found living in woodlands.

Life cycle[edit]

The magnolia warbler undergoes multiple molts during its lifetime. The first molts begin while the young offspring are still living in the nest, while the rest take place on or near their breeding grounds.[5] The warblers molt, breed, care for their offspring, and then migrate. Chicks hatch after a two-week incubation period, and can fledge from the nest after close to another two weeks when their feathers are more developed. After about a month, the chicks can leave the nest to begin living (and later breeding) on their own since they are solitary birds. Magnolia warblers typically live up to 7 years.[8]

Behavior[edit]

Diet and feeding[edit]

This warbler usually eats any type of arthropod, but their main delicacies are caterpillars.[9] The warbler also feeds on different types of beetles, butterflies, spiders, and fruit during their breeding season, while they increase their intake of both fruit and nectar during the winter.[5] These birds also tend to eat parts of the branches of mid-height coniferous trees, such as spruce firs,[9] in their usual breeding habitat.

Songs[edit]

Magnolia warbler song recorded in Minnesota in late May

Researchers have observed two different types of songs in male magnolia warblers. Their songs have been referred to as the First Category song and the Second Category song.[10] Females have not been observed to have a distinct song yet as the males have; while they do sing, they don’t have separate songs for different situations. In general, the male warblers use their songs during the spring migration season and during the breeding season: one is used for courtship and the other is used to mark their territory each day.[10] Both males and females have call notes that they use for various alerts: the females have short call notes to signal when a human observer is watching them, and the males have short call notes to signal when any sort of threatening predators are close to their offspring.

Reproduction[edit]

Male magnolia warblers go to their breeding grounds about two weeks before the females arrive. After the females come to the breeding grounds, both the males and females cooperate to build the nest for a week. Because of the difficulty of locating their nests among the forest’s dense undergrowth, it is hard to know whether the warblers re-use their original nests each breeding season, or whether they abandon them for new ones. The nests are built in their tree of choice – different types of fir trees, such as Abies balsamea (balsam fir) and Picea glauca (spruce fir).[2] The nest is made up of grass, twigs, and horsehair fungus, and they are relatively small, shallow, circular-shaped nests, barely exceeding 10 cm on all sides.[5] The nests are usually found close to the ground, commonly in the lowest three meters of the firs.

Female magnolia warblers usually lay three to five eggs during each breeding season. The female will not incubate her eggs until all of them are laid. The female sits on the eggs for about two weeks before the eggs hatch. The female is also the one that warms the newborn chicks by brooding, or sitting, on the nest; she is also the one who feeds the newborn chicks most frequently, though the males also engage in feeding the offspring at times.[11] Because the males are technically as equally responsible for feeding the newborns as the females are, this means that the males are monogamous because they expend a large amount of energy looking for food for their young. In order to keep the nest clean, females eat the fecal sacs of their newborns; as the chicks grow older, both parents simply remove the sacs from the nest. The baby warblers are ready to fly out of the nest by the time they are ten days old.

Conservation[edit]

The magnolia warbler is assessed on the IUCN Red List as least concern for conservation because it is fairly widespread and common within its habitat and not at risk of extinction. Research has shown that a good percentage of warblers die from flying into television towers in their migratory path. Also, parts of their habitat have been denigrated as coniferous forests are cleared which causes the number of warblers living in a habitat to decrease, but they certainly are not greatly affected by the deforestation. While the deforestation does decrease the warbler population in the specific area that it occurs in, the species is not significantly impacted overall due to the general abundance of the species throughout the region.[1][12]

In art[edit]

John James Audubon’s Black & Yellow Warbler (magnolia warbler), Plate 123 from The Birds of America

John James Audubon illustrated the magnolia warbler in The Birds of America, Second Edition (published, London 1827–38) as Plate 123 under the title, "Black & Yellow Warbler – Sylvia maculosa" where a pair of birds (male and female) are shown searching flowering raspberry for insects. The image was engraved and colored by Robert Havell's London workshops. The original watercolor by Audubon was purchased by the New York History Society where it remains As of January 2009.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2012). "Dendroica magnolia". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ a b c d 2009. Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia). Audubon Guides (Allied with National Audubon Society).
  3. ^ "Magnolia Warbler, Life History, All About Birds – Cornell Lab of Ornithology". Allaboutbirds.org. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  4. ^ Curson, Jon; Quinn, David; Beadle, David (1994). New World Warblers. London: Christopher Helm. ISBN 0-7136-3932-6. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f Dunn, E.; Hall, G. A. 2010. (1994). "Magnolia Warbler (Dendroica magnolia)". In Poole, A. The Birds of North America Online. Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. doi:10.2173/bna.136. 
  6. ^ Hitch, A. T.; Leberg, P. L. (2007). "Breeding Distributions of North American Bird Species Moving North as a Result of Climate Change". Conservation Biology 21 (2): 534–539. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2006.00609.x. PMID 17391203. 
  7. ^ Boone, A. T.; Rodewald, P. G.; Degroote, L. W. (2010). "Neotropical Winter Habitat of the Magnolia Warbler: Effects on Molt, Energetic Condition, Migration Timing, and Hematozoan Infection During Spring Migration". The Condor 112: 115–122. doi:10.1525/cond.2010.090098. 
  8. ^ National Geographic field guide to the birds of North America (4th ed.). Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society. 2002. 
  9. ^ a b Morse, D. H. (1976). "Variables Affecting the Density and Territory Size of Breeding Spruce-Woods Warblers". Ecology 57 (2): 290–301. doi:10.2307/1934817. 
  10. ^ a b Morse, D. H. (1989). "Song Patterns of Warblers at Dawn and Dusk" (PDF). The Wilson Bulletin (Wilson Ornithological Society) 101 (1): 26–35. 
  11. ^ Allen, J.; Islam, K. (2004). "Gender Differences in Parental Feeding Effort of Cerulean Warblers at Big Oaks National Wildlife Refuge, Indiana" (PDF). Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Science 113 (2): 162–165. Archived from the original on 14 May 2012. 
  12. ^ Germaine, S. S.; Vessey, S. H.; Capen, D. E. (1997). "Effects of Small Forest Openings on the Breeding Bird Community in a Vermont Hardwood Forest" (PDF). The Condor 99 (3): 708–718. doi:10.2307/1370482. 
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA (Lovette et al. 2010) indicate that all species formerly placed in Dendroica, one species formerly placed in Wilsonia (citrina), and two species formerly placed in Parula (americana and pitiayumi) form a clade with the single species traditionally placed in Setophaga (ruticilla). The generic name Setophaga has priority for this clade (AOU 2011).

D. lutea is an invalid alternate name (Banks and Browning 1995).

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