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Overview

Brief Summary

Setophaga striata

A medium-sized (5 inches) wood warbler, the male Blackpoll Warbler in summer is most easily identified by its gray body, streaked back and flanks, and black head with prominent white cheek patches. Female Blackpoll Warblers are dull gray overall with faint white eye-stripes. In fall and winter, both sexes become dull green-gray on the back and pale tan below. The Blackpoll Warbler primarily breeds across Alaska and north-central Canada. Smaller numbers breed in southeastern Canada, and isolated breeding populations exist in the mountains of New England and New York. The Blackpoll Warbler is a long-distance migrant, wintering in northern South America. Blackpoll Warblers breed in northern and high-mountain evergreen forests, particularly in areas where Black Spruce (Picea mariana) occurs. In winter, this species may be found primarily in humid tropical forests. Blackpoll Warblers mainly eat small invertebrates, including insects and spiders, although this species may eat fruits or berries while on migration. In appropriate habitat, Blackpoll Warblers may be observed foraging for food located on leaves, needles, and branches in the forest canopy. Birdwatchers may also listen for this species’ song, a high “zi” note repeated several times in quick succession. Blackpoll Warblers are primarily active during the day, but, like many migratory songbirds, this species migrates at night.

Threat Status: Least Concern

  • Blackpoll Warbler (Dendroica striata). The Internet Bird Collection. Lynx Edicions, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. .
  • Dendroica striata. Xeno-canto. Xeno-canto Foundation, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. .
  • Hunt, Pamela D. and Bonita C. Eliason. 1999. Blackpoll Warbler (Setophaga striata), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/431
  • Peterson, Roger Tory. Birds of Eastern and Central North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1980. Print.
  • eBird Range Map - Blackpoll Warbler. eBird. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, N.d. Web. 20 July 2012. .
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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

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Global Range: Breeding range extens from western and north-central Alaska and northwestern Canada (Mackenzie Delta) to northern Labrador and Newfoundland, and south to southern Alaska, south-central British Columbia, northern Saskatchewan, eastern New York, northern New England, and Nova Scotia. During the northern winter, this warbler occurs primarily in the Amazon basin in Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, and Bolivia, and has been found several times in southern South America, where the species is perhaps common locally in southeastern Brazil (Ridgely and Tudor 1989). This species is an autumn transient in Bermuda, Bahamas, eastern Greater Antilles, and throughout the Lesser Antilles; spring transient in western Greater Antilles and Bahamas; casual in Central America (Stiles and Skutch 1989).

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Range

Alaska and Canada; winters Colombia to Peru and w Amaz. Brazil.
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

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Physical Description

Size

Length: 14 cm

Weight: 13 grams

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Type Information

Type for Dendroica striata
Catalog Number: USNM 231288
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Birds
Sex/Stage: Male; Adult
Preparation: Skin: Whole
Collector(s): G. Hanna
Year Collected: 1911
Locality: Nushagak, Nushagak Bay, Dillingham Census Area, Alaska, United States, North America
  • Type: Burleigh, T. D. & Peters. 16 Jun 1948 . Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington. 61: 119.
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Type for Dendroica striata
Catalog Number: USNM 231288
Collection: Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Division of Birds
Sex/Stage: Male; Adult
Preparation: Skin: Whole
Collector(s): G. Hanna
Year Collected: 1911
Locality: Nushagak, Nushagak Bay, Dillingham Census Area, Alaska, United States, North America
  • Type: Burleigh & Peters. June 16, 1948. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington. 61: 119.
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Comments: Cool, wet boreal coniferous forest (primarily spruce), usually dominated by low trees; locally also mixed second growth, regenerating burns, peatlands, and alder thickets (AOU 1998). In migration in various forest, forest border, woodland, scrub, and brushy habitats (AOU 1983), clearings with scattered trees. In winter, mostly (exclusively?) on islands in and vegetation surrounding major rivers.

Nests usually are well hidden in small trees, to about 3 m above ground. Adults usually return to previously used breeding sites (Eliason 1986).

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Late migrant in spring in Atlantic states; moves through northeast May-June (Terres 1980). Migrates from eastern North America to northern South America, nonstop or through West Indies, with most apparently not going through the southeastern U.S. before going to South America (McNair and Post 1993). Fairly common in fall in Puerto Rico, rare in spring (Raffaele 1983, Murray 1989). Present in South America mostly September-April, occasionally to May (Ridgely and Tudor 1989).

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Eats various small insects and spiders gleaned from leaves and twigs of trees; also flycatches and eats some small fruits (Terres 1980).

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Population Biology

Global Abundance

>1,000,000 individuals

Comments: Global abundance estimated at 21,000,000 birds (Rich et al. 2004).

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 8.1 years (wild)
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Reproduction

Eggs laid June-July. Clutch size 3-5 (usually 4-5). Incubation at least 11 days, by female. Young tended by both sexes, leave nest at 10-12 days. (Terres 1980, Harrison 1978). Some males bigamous (Eliason 1986).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Dendroica striata

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 22 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

AACCGATGATTATTCTCAACCAACCACAAAGACATCGGGACCCTATACCTAATTTTCGGCGCATGAGCCGGAATAGTGGGTACCGCCCTA---AGCCTCCTCATTCGAGCAGAACTAGGCCAACCCGGAGCCCTTCTGGGAGAC---GACCAAGTCTATAACGTAGTCGTCACGGCCCATGCCTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTTATACCGATTATAATCGGAGGATTCGGAAACTGACTAGTCCCCCTAATA---ATTGGAGCCCCAGACATAGCATTCCCACGAATAAATAACATAAGCTTCTGACTACTCCCACCATCATTCCTTCTCCTTCTAGCATCCTCCACAGTTGAAGCAGGAGTAGGTACAGGCTGAACAGTGTACCCCCCACTAGCCGGTAACCTAGCCCATGCCGGAGCCTCAGTCGACCTC---GCAATCTTCTCCTTACACTTAGCCGGTATTTCCTCAATCCTCGGAGCAATTAACTTCATTACAACAGCAATTAACATGAAACCTCCTGCCCTCTCACAATACCAAACCCCACTATTCGTCTGATCAGTCCTAATCACTGCAGTCCTCCTACTCCTTTCTCTCCCAGTCCTAGCTGCA---GGAATCACAATGCTCCTCACAGATCGCAACCTCAACACCACATTCTTCGACCCCGCCGGAGGAGGAGACCCCGTCCTATATCAACATCTTTTCTGATTCTTCGGTCACCCAGAAGTCTACATCCTAATCCTCCCAGGATTTGGGATCATCTCTCACGTCGTAACATACTATGCAGGCAAAAAA---GAACCATTCGGCTACATAGGAATAGTATGAGCCATACTATCCATCGGATTCCTGGGCTTTATTGTCTGAGCCCACCACATATTCACAGTAGGAATGGACGTTGACACCCGAGCTTACTTTACATCCGCCACTATAATCATCGCCATCCCAACCGGAATCAAAGTGTTCAGCTGACTA---GCCACGCTCCACGGAGGT---ACAATCAAATGAGACCCTCCAATACTTTGAGCCCTAGGGTTCATCTTCCTGTTCACCATTGGAGGCCTCACAGGAATCGTTCTAGCAAACTCCTCACTAGACGTTGCCCTACACGATACTTACTATGTAGTTGCCCACTTCCATTATGTA---CTATCCATAGGAGCAGTATTCGCAATCTTAGCAGGCTTCACCCACTGATTCCCCCTATTCACGGGCTATACCCTCCACTCAACATGAGCCAAAGCACACTTCGGTGTAATATTCGTAGGTGTAAACCTAACCTTCTTCCCACAACACTTCCTAGGCCTGGCTGGCATGCCACGA---CGATACTCAGATTACCCAGACGCCTACACA---CTATGAAACACCATCTCCTCCGTAGGCTCACTCATCTCACTAACAGCTGTAATCATACTAGTATTTATTATCTGGGAAGCCTTCGCATCAAAACGTAAAGTA---CTGCAACCAGAACTAGCCAGCACTAAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Dendroica striata

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 22
Specimens with Barcodes: 24
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

History
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
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