Overview

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

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Global Range: BREEDING: southwestern British Columbia, western Washington, central Oregon, southwestern Idaho, northern Utah, southwestern Wyoming, northwestern and central Colorado, south in mountains to Arizona, eastern and southern New Mexico, northern Baja California, and northeastern Sonora, Mexico (AOU 1983, Guzy and Lowther 1997). Centers of abundance based on BBS data are in eastern Utah, southeastern Arizona, the Sierra Nevada, northwestern California, western Oregon, western Washington, and southwestern British Columbia (Sauer et al. 1997). NON-BREEDING: primarily in Baja California Sur and Pacific Slope and interior of Snora, Durango, Zacatecas, and Coahuila south to central Oaxaca. In small numbers in California and along Gulf Coast of U.S. (Guzy and Lowther 1997).

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Physical Description

Size

Length: 13 cm

Weight: 9 grams

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Comments: BREEDING: Breeds in a variety of semi-arid woodlands; dry, open forests; mixed, moist forests; brushlands; chaparral. Especially uses conifers, live oaks, and mixed pinyon-juniper woodlands (Dunn and Garrett 1997). Inhabits juniper-pinyon-oak scrub on slopes, foothills, and canyons, where (in Wyoming) it is strongly associated with the presence of pinyon pine and high seedling/sapling density and understory height (Pavlacky and Anderson 2001). Also inhabits fir forests and edges of clearings. Nests in trees or shrubs 1-10 meters above ground, sometimes up to 15 meters (Harrison 1978; M. Guzy, pers. comm.). An early observer noted that the species likes well-scattered conifers; prefers high and dry places; and does not mind marsh or river nearby if ground beneath the nest is dry (Bowles 1902).

Generally uses younger age classes in northwest forests. In Douglas-fir forests in western Washington and Oregon, Meslow and Wright (1975) found the species nesting in shrub-sapling (7-15 years old), older second growth (41-120 years) and mature (> 120 years) successional communities, and using but not nesting in 16-40 year-old second growth. In Oregon Coast Range Douglas-fir forests, Carey et al. (1991) found highest densities in young stands (40-72 years; 9.06 birds per 40 hectares two-year average) in contrast to mature (80-120 years; 2.37 birds per 40 hectares two-year average) and old-growth stands (200-250 years; 3.04 birds per 40 hectares two-year average). Young stands typically had high densities of small-diameter trees (mean 269.7 stems per hectare of trees 10-19 centimeter dbh) and low densities of large trees over 50 centimeter dbh; also few large snags and low vertical foliage density. Similarly, in Douglas-fir forests of the Washington Cascades, were detected more frequently in young stands (55-80 years; mean 0.19 birds per visit) than in mature (95-190 years; 0.02 birds per visit) or old-growth stands (300-730 years; 0.06 birds per visit; Manuwal 1991). Young stands contained the highest mean densities (70 trees per hectares) of live trees less than 50 centimeter dbh and high densities (70 per hectare) of small snags less than 19 centimeter dbh. Huff and Raley (1991) also detected birds more often in young stands than in mature and old-growth stands in the Oregon Coast Ranges and Southern Washington Cascades, but in the Oregon Cascades they found little difference between stand age classes although the species was detected on a slightly greater percentage of old-growth stands.

On Vancouver Island, British Columbia, most often found in 50- to 60-year-old stands of mixed forests; an important elementis relatively open but brushy undergrowth (Campbell et al. 2001).

In southern Idaho, uses low ridges covered with open junipers (Burleigh 1972). In California, inhabits dry, open woodlands and brushy understories of foothills and mountains; breeds in ponderosa pine (PINUS PONDEROSA), valley-foothill hardwood-conifer, montane hardwood and pinyon-juniper habitats, and prefers oak woodland or pinyon-juniper mixed with chaparral or brushy understories (USDA Forest Service 1994). In northwestern Colorado pinyon-juniper habitat, prefers late-successional woodlands and occurs in similar woodland habitat to Plumbeous Vireo (VIREO PLUMBEOUS) and Dusky Flycatcher (EMPIDONAX OBERHOLSERI; Sedgwick 1987). In the Northwest, will use stands of regenerating deciduous trees and conifers in old clearcuts and burns (Dunn and Garrett 1997). In northern Arizona pinyon-juniper, observed to use and nest in juniper slightly more than other bird species (Balda 1969). In Mexico and northern Central America, breeds in semi-arid pine-oak and juniper woodland (Howell and Webb 1995). Breeds from 3,000 to 7,000 feet in the Sierra, up to 9,500 feet in White Mountains, California, but much lower in the Northwest (Dunn and Garrett 1997).

NON-BREEDING: In winter, uses arid mountain woodlands, including pine-oak. May use riparian habitats as travel corridors (USDA Forest Service 1994). In California, uses oaks and riparian willows and cottonwoods; in southwestern U.S., bottomland cottonwoods, willows, mesquite, and sycamores (Dunn and Garrett 1997). In Mexico and northern Central America, winters in arid to semi-humid oak and pine-oak forest and scrub (Howell and Webb 1995). In western Mexico, Hutto (1992) classified this species as a two-zone generalist that primarily uses tropical deciduous forest and thorn forest, and only 5 percent of observations were in pine-oak forest.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Winters north of the Isthmus; from California lowlands and southern Arizona through western and central Mexico, from southern Baja, southern Sonora and Coahuila south to Oaxaca (Dunn and Garrett 1997).

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Feeds mainly on insects (moths, butterflies, beetles, ants, etc.); may also eat leaf galls and a few spiders. Forages among leaves in bushes and trees. May forage high in trees or lower in trees and bushes. In southwestern Oregon and northwestern California use oak trees in spring for foraging on small green caterpillars (Bowles 1902).

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General Ecology

Seen singly or in pairs; may be seen in small groups while migrating.

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Clutch size is three to five (usually four). Incubation is done by female. Young are tended by both parents (Harrison 1978).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Dendroica nigrescens

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 7 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

CCCATACCTATTTTTCGGCGCATGAGCCGGAATAGTGGGTACCGCCCTAAGCCTCCTCATCCGAGCAGAACTAGGCCAACCCGGAGCCCTTCTGGGAGACGACCAAGTCTACAACGTAGTCGTCACGGCCCATGCCTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTTATGCCAATTATAATCGGAGGATTCGGAAACTGACTAGTCCCCCTAATAATCGGAGCCCCAGACATAGCATTCCCACGAATAAATAACATAAGCTTCTGACTACTCCCACCATCATTCCTTCTCCTCCTAGCATCCTCCACAGTTGAAGCAGGAGTAGGTACAGGCTGAACAGAATACCCCCCACTAGCTGGCAACCTAGCCCATGCCGGAGCTTCAGTCGACCTCGCAATTTTCTCTTTACACCTAGCCGGTATTTCCTCAATCCTCGGGGCAATCAACTTCATTACAACGGCAATTAACATGAAACCTCCTGCCCTCTCACAATACCAAACCCCACTGTTCGTATGATCAGTCCTAATCACTGCAGTCCTCCTACTCCTCTCCCTTCCAGTCCTAGCTGCAGGAATCACAATGCTCCTCACAGACCGCAACCTCAACACCACATTCTTCGACCCTGCAGGAGGAGGAGATCCCGTCCTATATCAACATCTTTTCTGATTCTTTGGCCACCCAGAAGTCTNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Dendroica nigrescens

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 7
Specimens with Barcodes: 9
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

History
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
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