Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Vermivora crissalis is a fairly common but local breeder, occurring from Coahuila to north-east Zacatecas and northern San Luis Potosí, Mexico, and extreme south-west Texas, USA (Curson et al. 1994, Howell and Webb 1995a). It winters in west Mexico from south Sinaloa south to Guerrero and Morelos (Howell and Webb 1995a).

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Range

W Texas (Chisos Mountains) to central Mexico.

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occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

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Global Range: (20,000-200,000 square km (about 8000-80,000 square miles)) Breeding range includes extreme western Texas (Chisos Mountains), southern Coahuila (Diamante Pass, Sierra Guadalupe), western Nuevo Leon (Cerro Potosi), southwestern Tamaulipas (Miquihuana), northeastern Zacatecas, and northern San Luis Potosi, at elevations of 1,500-3,200 meters (1,500-2,370 meters in Texas, 2,180-3,180 meters in southeastern Coahuila) (Howell and Webb 1995, AOU 1998, Beason and Wauer 1998). Distribution within breeding range is patchy (Beason and Wauer 1998). In winter, this warbler occurs from southeastern Sinaloa and southwestern Durango south through Jalisco, Colima, and Michoacan to Guerrero (AOU 1983, Lanning et al. 1990) and rarely Oaxaca, at elevations of 1,500-3,600 meters (Wauer 1994, Howell and Webb 1995, Beason and Wauer 1998).

Coded range extend refers to breeding range.

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Physical Description

Size

Length: 15 cm

Weight: 10 grams

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It breeds in pine-oak, oak and pinyon-juniper woodland, between 1,500 and 3,000 m (Curson et al. 1994, Howell and Webb 1995a), and is commonest in pine-oak woodland with a ground cover of bunchgrass (Wauer 1994). It winters in brushy understorey of humid to semi-humid montane forest from 1,500 to 3,500 m (Howell and Webb 1995a). The nest is usually on the ground, and eggs have been found in May (Curson et al. 1994).


Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Comments: This warbler nests in thickets and shrubby woodland, primarily oak, maple, cypress, and juniper scrub in hilly areas; in migration it occurs in open woodland, thickets, and scrub (AOU 1983). Habitat in Texas includes oak-pinyon pine-juniper and oak-maple-Arizona cypress vegetation types; in southeastern Coahuila, it includes chaparral interspersed with pines 4.5-6.0 meters tall and low oak-pine woodland bordering conifer forest (Lanning et al. 1990, Wauer 1994, Beason and Wauer 1998).

Lanning et al. (1990) characterized the habitat as follows: oak-pine habitat with bunchgrass ground cover, especially where shrubs and ground cover are relatively tall and dense, including habitat islands as small as 10 sq km (breeding); woodland and forest containing oaks, pines, and fir (winter); often in the dense lower vegetation in both breeding and winter habitats; tree, shrub, and ground vegetation strata often contiguous; occur in undisturbed sites and areas of light to moderate grazing, selective logging, and burning, but not in areas heavily disturbed by these factors (Lanning et al. 1990).

Nests are constructed among leaves in shaded areas on the ground among small oaks, bunchgrass, between rocks on banks of dry streambeds, or on edges of talus slopes. Nests incorporate pinyon-ricegrass, dead leaves, hair of deer and horse, and other materials (Wauer 1994).

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Migrants arrives on breeding grounds in Texas between mid-March and late May, depart by mid-September (Wauer 1994).

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Diet includes insects, including wasp galls, and spiders (Wauer 1994). This warbler has been observed apparently taking nectar from agave flowers.

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Population Biology

Number of Occurrences

Note: For many non-migratory species, occurrences are roughly equivalent to populations.

Estimated Number of Occurrences: 21 - 300

Comments: Occurrences have not been determined using standardized criteria. This warbler breeds in many locations in its small range in the Chisos Mountains in Texas (Beason and Wauer 1998) and in many more locations in Mexico where the species is much more widely distributed.

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Global Abundance

10,000 - 100,000 individuals

Comments: Total adult population size is not well documented but likely exceeds 10,000. Rich et al. (2004) estimated global population size at 25,000. In the Chisos Mountains, Texas, mean population was 58.2 breeding pairs at 10 count locations from 1967 to 1984; in 1996, 42 breeding pairs were recorded at same count locations, and 26 additional pairs were located at lower elevations where previously they had not been found (Beason and Wauer 1998).

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General Ecology

Mean territory size in Texas was 306 meters by 165 meters (Wauer 1994). Principal predators are Mexican jay and sharp-shinned hawk (Wauer 1994).

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Eggs are laid in May in Texas. Clutch size usually is 3-4. Incubation, by female, lasts 12 days. Both sexes tend young, which fledge 3.5 weeks after hatching (Wauer 1994).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Vermivora crissalis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

CCTATACCTAATTTTCGGCGCATGAGCCGGAATAGTGGGTACCGCCCTAAGCCTCCTTATCCGAGCAGAACTAGGCCAACCCGGAGCCCTTCTGGGAGACGACCAAGTCTACAATGTAGTCGTCACGGCCCATGCCTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTCATAGTCATACCGATTATAATCGGAGGATTCGGAAACTGACTAGTTCCTCTAATAATCGGAGCCCCAGACATAGCATTCCCACGAATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGACTACTCCCACCATCATTCCTTCTCCTACTAGCATCCTCCACAGTTGAAGCAGGCGTAGGCACAGGTTGAACAGTGTACCCCCCACTAGCTGGCAACCTAGCCCACGCCGGAGCCTCAGTCGACCTTGCAATTTTCTCTCTACATCTGGCTGGTATTTCCTCAATCCTCGGAGCAATCAACTTCATTACAACAGCAATCAACATGAAACCTCCTGCCCTCTCACAATACCAAACCCCACTATTCGTCTGATCAGTACTAATCACTGCAGTTCTCCTACTCCTCTCCCTCCCAGTCCTAGCTGCAGGAATCACAATACTCCTCACAGACCGCAACCTCAACACTACATTCTTTGACCCCGCCGGAGGAGGAGATCCCGTCCTATACCAACATCTANNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Vermivora crissalis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 1
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Taylor, J. & Butchart, S.

Contributor/s
Valdes, R.

Justification
This species has been downlisted to Least Concern because it is no longer thought to be undergoing moderately rapid population declines, and is not thought to approach the thresholds for classification as Vulnerable under any other criteria. Nevertheless, the total population is thought to be moderately small and habitat loss remains a threat, and indications that the population is smaller than currently suspected, or undergoing rapid declines, would warrant reconsideration of its threat status.

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National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N3B - Vulnerable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G3 - Vulnerable

Reasons: Small range in Texas and Mexico; population size probably exceeds 10,000 and may be stable or slowly declining; no major threats; better information is needed on conservation status in Mexico.

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Population

Population
Rich et al (2003)


Population Trend
Decreasing
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Global Short Term Trend: Relatively stable (=10% change)

Comments: Chisos Mountain population appears to be stable (Wauer 1994, Beason and Wauer 1998). Trend in Mexico is unknown; based on habitat trends (area is mostly remote, sparsely inhabited by humans, and/or unsuitable for agriculture; Lanning et al. 1990), the warbler population presumably is relatively stable or declining at a rate of less than 30 percent over 10 years or three genberations.

Global Long Term Trend: Unknown

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Threats

Major Threats
Grazing by goats, sheep and other exotic herbivores, increases in the populations of feral cats and dogs, and nest parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds Molothrus ater are potentially severe threats to populations of this warbler in Mexico (Wauer 1994).

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Degree of Threat: Low

Comments: No major threats are apparent, due mainly to the remote, rugged, sparsely populated habitat (Lanning et al. 1990). In Mexico, potentially severe threats include (1) grazing by exotic livestock and (2) adjacent land uses that increase populations of feral dogs, cats, and brown-headed cowbirds (Wauer 1994).

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Conservation Actions Underway
None are known.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Regularly monitor the population at selected sites across its range to determine trends. Research the effects of grazing and wood cutting on populations of the species. Examine the effects of Brown-headed Cowbird parasitism at the population level. Protect significant areas of forest, in both strictly protected areas and community led multiple use areas.

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Biological Research Needs: Better information is needed on winter ecology.

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Wikipedia

Colima Warbler

The Colima Warbler (Oreothlypis crissalis) is a New World warbler. It is mainly found in the Sierra Madre Occidental of central Mexico, though its range just barely extends into adjacent southwestern Texas in the Chisos Mountains of Big Bend National Park.

The Colima warbler is about 4.5 to 5 inches (11 to 13 cm) long. They are mainly dark gray and brownish in coloration, with a pale under-side. Their rump and the feathers below their tail are yellow. They have a white ring around their eye, and a tinge of pale color on their breasts. Males have a spot of orange on the top of their heads.

In appearance the Colima Warbler is very similar to the Virginia's Warbler, but is larger in size, more robust, and heavier billed. The Virginia's Warbler has much more yellow or pale color on their breasts, which is more gray in the Colima Warbler. The yellow above and below the tail is also more orange-yellow in the Colima's Warbler, and more greenish-yellow in Virginia's Warblers.

Life history

Nesting is done on the ground. Forming a loose cup-shaped nest of grass, leaves, and moss the Colima Warbler hides its nest among the mountain rocks. It usually lays four eggs, which are white to cream-colored and speckled with brown.

References

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) placed in the genus Vermivora, transferred to Oreothlypis by AOU (2010). Sometimes this species has been regarded as conspecific with V. ruficapilla and V. virginiae (AOU 1983); the three species may constitute a superspecies (AOU 1998).

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