Overview

Brief Summary

Oreothlypis ruficapilla

A small (4 ¾ inches) wood warbler, the male Nashville Warbler is most easily identified by its dull green wings and body, bright yellow breast, gray face, and white eye-ring. The female is similar to the male, but is duller below and on the head. This species is most easily separated from the similar-looking Connecticut Warbler (Oporornis agilis) by the latter species’ dark gray throat present in both sexes. The Nashville Warbler breeds across much of southern Canada and the northeastern United States. Another population breeds in the west from southern British Columbia south to northern California (locally in the mountains to southern California and Nevada). In winter, the eastern population migrates south to Mexico, Central America, and coastal Texas, while the western population migrates to the coast of California. Nashville Warblers breed in a variety of open forest habitat types, ranging from spruce and tamarack forests in the north to oak and pine forests in California. In winter, this species occurs in semi-open portions of humid tropical forests. Nashville Warblers eat small invertebrates, primarily insects (including caterpillars) and spiders. Due to this species’ preference for heavily vegetated habitats, Nashville Warblers are much more easily heard than seen. Birdwatchers may listen for this species’ “seebit, sebit, sebit, sebit, titititititi” song, or may attempt to observe it foraging for insects in the forest canopy. Nashville Warblers are primarily active during the day, but, like many migratory songbirds, this species migrates at night.

Threat Status: Least concern

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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

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Global Range: BREEDS: southern British Columbia to northwestern Montana, south to southern California and Nevada, also from central Saskatchewan to Nova Scotia, south to southern Manitoba, Minnesota, northeastern Ohio, West Virginia, Maryland. WINTERS: southern Sonora and Durango east to Nuevo Leon, southern Texas and Tamaulipas south through Chiapas and into Guatemala; most common in western Mexico and central highlands, less common on Atlantic slope and unknown from Yucatan Peninsula; regularly south to El Salvador, rare or accidental in Honduras, rarely or casually to Costa Rica and western Panama (Stiles and Skutch 1989), southern California, Florida, and West Indies.

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Physical Description

Size

Length: 12 cm

Weight: 9 grams

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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Forest-bordered bogs, second growth, open deciduous and coniferous woodland, forest edge and undergrowth, cutover or burned areas; in migration and winter in various woodland, scrub, and thicket habitats. Nests on ground at base of bush, small tree, sapling, or clump of grass, or in hollow in moss.

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Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Eats insects; forages from ground to treetop, but mainly low in trees and thickets at edge of forest (Terres 1980). Nonbreeding range: visits flowers, takes small berries and arillate seeds, gleans for small insects (Stiles and Skutch 1989).

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 10.2 years (wild)
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Reproduction

Clutch size is 4-5. Incubation, by female, lasts 11-12 days. Young are tended by both parents, leave nest at about 11 days.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Vermivora ruficapilla

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 8 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNCCGGAATAGTGGGTACCGCCCTAAGCCTCCTTATCCGAGCAGAACTAGGCCAACCCGGAGCCCTTCTGGGAGACGACCAAGTCTACAATGTAGTTGTCACGGCCCATGCCTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTCATACCGATTATAATCGGAGGATTCGGAAACTGACTAGTTCCTCTAATAATCGGAGCCCCAGACATAGCATTCCCACGAATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGACTACTCCCACCATCATTCCTTCTTCTACTAGCATCCTCCACAGTTGAAGCAGGTGTAGGCACAGGTTGAACAGTGTACCCCCCACTAGCTGGCAACCTAGCCCACGCCGGAGCCTCAGTCGACCTTGCAATTTTCTCTCTACATCTAGCTGGTATTTCCTCAATCCTCGGGGCAATCAACTTCATTACAACAGCAATCAACATGAAACCTCCTGCCCTATCACAATACCAAACCCCACTATTCGTCTGATCAGTACTAATCACTGCAGTTCTCCTGCTCCTCTCCCTCCCAGTCCTAGCTGCAGGAATCACAATGCTCCTCACAGACCGCAACCTCAACACTACATTCTTTGACCCTGCCGGAGGAGGAGATCCCGTCCTATACCAACATCTATTCTGATTCTTCGGACACCCAGAAGTCTACATCCTAATCCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Vermivora ruficapilla

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

Canada

Rounded National Status Rank: N5B - Secure

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N5B - Secure

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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Population

Population Trend
Increasing
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Wikipedia

Nashville Warbler

The Nashville Warbler (Oreothlypis ruficapilla) is a small songbird in the New World warbler family.

Nashville Warblers have olive-brown upperparts, a white belly and a yellow throat and breast; they have a white eye ring, no wing bars and a thin pointed bill. Adult males have a grey head with a rusty crown patch (often not visible); females and immature birds have a duller olive-grey head. The Nashville Warbler is closely related to Virginia's Warbler, Lucy's Warbler and Colima Warbler, the four sharing generally similar plumage.

Two discrete populations exist. The nominate subspecies, O. r. ruficapilla, breeds in northeastern North America. The other subspecies, O. r. ridgwayi, known as the Calaveras Warbler, nests in western North America. The latter differs from the former in its relatively duller plumage and more persistent tail movements.

Life history[edit]

Nashville Warblers breed in open mixed woods and bog habitats in Canada and the northeastern and western United States. Although named after Nashville, Tennessee, the Nashville Warbler only visits that area during migration.

They migrate to southernmost Texas, Mexico and Central America in winter.

They forage in the lower parts of trees and shrubs, frequently flicking their tails; these birds mainly eat insects.

The song of the nominate subspecies consists of a rapid seewit-seewit-seewit-ti-ti-ti. Males sing from open perches on the nesting territory. The call sounds like a high seet. Western birds of the race ridgwayi have a slightly lower-pitched, richer song, and a sharper call note.

They conceal their open cup-shaped nests on the ground under shrubs.

References[edit]

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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Formerly (AOU 1983, 1998) placed in the genus Vermivora, transferred to Oreothlypis by AOU (2010). Some authors include V. virginiae and V. crissalis in this species (AOU 1983); the three species may constitute a superspecies (AOU 1998).

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