Overview

Brief Summary

Oreothlypis ruficapilla

A small (4 ¾ inches) wood warbler, the male Nashville Warbler is most easily identified by its dull green wings and body, bright yellow breast, gray face, and white eye-ring. The female is similar to the male, but is duller below and on the head. This species is most easily separated from the similar-looking Connecticut Warbler (Oporornis agilis) by the latter species’ dark gray throat present in both sexes. The Nashville Warbler breeds across much of southern Canada and the northeastern United States. Another population breeds in the west from southern British Columbia south to northern California (locally in the mountains to southern California and Nevada). In winter, the eastern population migrates south to Mexico, Central America, and coastal Texas, while the western population migrates to the coast of California. Nashville Warblers breed in a variety of open forest habitat types, ranging from spruce and tamarack forests in the north to oak and pine forests in California. In winter, this species occurs in semi-open portions of humid tropical forests. Nashville Warblers eat small invertebrates, primarily insects (including caterpillars) and spiders. Due to this species’ preference for heavily vegetated habitats, Nashville Warblers are much more easily heard than seen. Birdwatchers may listen for this species’ “seebit, sebit, sebit, sebit, titititititi” song, or may attempt to observe it foraging for insects in the forest canopy. Nashville Warblers are primarily active during the day, but, like many migratory songbirds, this species migrates at night.

Threat Status: Least Concern

  • Lowther, Peter E. and Janet McI. Williams. 2011. Nashville Warbler (Oreothlypis ruficapilla), The Birds of North America Online (A. Poole, Ed.). Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology; Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/205
  • Nashville Warbler (Vermivora ruficapilla). The Internet Bird Collection. Lynx Edicions, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. .
  • Peterson, Roger Tory. Birds of Eastern and Central North America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1980. Print.
  • Vermivora ruficapilla. Xeno-canto. Xeno-canto Foundation, n.d. Web. 20 July 2012. .
  • eBird Range Map - Nashville Warbler. eBird. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, N.d. Web. 20 July 2012. .
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Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

Canada

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

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Global Range: BREEDS: southern British Columbia to northwestern Montana, south to southern California and Nevada, also from central Saskatchewan to Nova Scotia, south to southern Manitoba, Minnesota, northeastern Ohio, West Virginia, Maryland. WINTERS: southern Sonora and Durango east to Nuevo Leon, southern Texas and Tamaulipas south through Chiapas and into Guatemala; most common in western Mexico and central highlands, less common on Atlantic slope and unknown from Yucatan Peninsula; regularly south to El Salvador, rare or accidental in Honduras, rarely or casually to Costa Rica and western Panama (Stiles and Skutch 1989), southern California, Florida, and West Indies.

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Physical Description

Size

Length: 12 cm

Weight: 9 grams

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Comments: Forest-bordered bogs, second growth, open deciduous and coniferous woodland, forest edge and undergrowth, cutover or burned areas; in migration and winter in various woodland, scrub, and thicket habitats. Nests on ground at base of bush, small tree, sapling, or clump of grass, or in hollow in moss.

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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Eats insects; forages from ground to treetop, but mainly low in trees and thickets at edge of forest (Terres 1980). Nonbreeding range: visits flowers, takes small berries and arillate seeds, gleans for small insects (Stiles and Skutch 1989).

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 10.2 years (wild)
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Reproduction

Clutch size is 4-5. Incubation, by female, lasts 11-12 days. Young are tended by both parents, leave nest at about 11 days.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Vermivora ruficapilla

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 8 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.

Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.

See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

NNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNCCGGAATAGTGGGTACCGCCCTAAGCCTCCTTATCCGAGCAGAACTAGGCCAACCCGGAGCCCTTCTGGGAGACGACCAAGTCTACAATGTAGTTGTCACGGCCCATGCCTTCGTAATAATTTTCTTTATAGTCATACCGATTATAATCGGAGGATTCGGAAACTGACTAGTTCCTCTAATAATCGGAGCCCCAGACATAGCATTCCCACGAATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGACTACTCCCACCATCATTCCTTCTTCTACTAGCATCCTCCACAGTTGAAGCAGGTGTAGGCACAGGTTGAACAGTGTACCCCCCACTAGCTGGCAACCTAGCCCACGCCGGAGCCTCAGTCGACCTTGCAATTTTCTCTCTACATCTAGCTGGTATTTCCTCAATCCTCGGGGCAATCAACTTCATTACAACAGCAATCAACATGAAACCTCCTGCCCTATCACAATACCAAACCCCACTATTCGTCTGATCAGTACTAATCACTGCAGTTCTCCTGCTCCTCTCCCTCCCAGTCCTAGCTGCAGGAATCACAATGCTCCTCACAGACCGCAACCTCAACACTACATTCTTTGACCCTGCCGGAGGAGGAGATCCCGTCCTATACCAACATCTATTCTGATTCTTCGGACACCCAGAAGTCTACATCCTAATCCTA
-- end --

Download FASTA File

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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Vermivora ruficapilla

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 9
Specimens with Barcodes: 10
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be increasing, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

History
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Least Concern (LC)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
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