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Range DescriptionConirostrum tamarugense is largely restricted to two populations within Pampa del Tamarugal National Reserve in Tarapacá, Chile (Estades 1996). It also occurs in tamarugo forest south of Arica in the Chaca (Vitor) valley between the Panamerican highway and the coast, and breeding presumably occurs here (A. P. Jaramillo in litt. 2007). It may also occur further upstream from here although this area is more heavily agricultural. Breeding could take place near Zapiga (Estades 1996, C. Estades in litt. 1999), and in other large areas of forest in Pampa del Tamarugal to the south of its known range (J. Fjeldså in litt. 1999). There are recent records further south along the Loa River, where active singers have been found in May and December at Quillagua and near Maria Elena (eBird 2012, F. Schmitt in litt. 2012). The southermost record of an immature bird is from San Pedro de Atacama (R. Tapia in litt. 2010). It migrates north to Arequipa, Tacna and Moquegua in south Peru. In 1993, the population was estimated at just over 35,000 individuals, breeding in 108 km2 of habitat, and possibly increasing with the expansion of suitable habitat (Estades 1996).