Overview

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Native

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Breeding

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Global Range: BREEDING: east-central and southeastern Arizona, west-central New Mexico (formerly), south through Mexico, Guatemala and El Salvador to central Honduras. NON-BREEDING: Sonora and Chihuahua south through breeding range.

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Physical Description

Size

Length: 13 cm

Weight: 8 grams

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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: Pine, pine-oak association and riparian woodland, in winter occasionally in open deciduous woodland (Subtropical and lower Temperate zones, in winter casually to Tropical Zone) (AOU 1983). BREEDING: Nests on branch or against trunk of tree, usually 3-14 m above ground. Nests at lower elevations than other EMPIDONAX flycatchers in southwestern U.S.

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Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

Breeding populations in northern part of range move south for winter.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Flys out from perch and catches insects in the air or under leaves. Also forages in bushes and under trees. Consumes beetles, bugs, grasshoppers, ants, etc. (Bent 1942).

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Life History and Behavior

Reproduction

Clutch size 3-4. Nests in loose colonies.

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Empidonax fulvifrons

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There are 2 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank.  Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.

TTTATATCTAATCTTCGGCGCCTGAGCCGGTATGATTGGTACCGCCTTAAGCCTCCTTATTCGAGCAGAACTCGGACAACCAGGAACTCTCCTAGGGGACGATCAAATCTACAACGTAATCGTCACTGCTCATGCCTTCGTAATGATCTTCTTTATAGTAATGCCCATCATAATTGGAGGGTTCGGTAACTGACTAGTCCCTCTGATAATTGGTGCACCTGATATAGCATTCCCCCGTATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGACTTCTACCCCCATCATTTCTCCTCCTCTTAGCCTCTTCCACAGTTGAAGCCGGTGCAGGAACCGGATGAACTGTTTATCCACCATTAGCTGGTAACCTAGCACATGCTGGAGCTTCAGTAGACCTAGCTATTTTCTCTCTTCATCTAGCAGGAGTTTCCTCTATCCTAGGAGCTATCAACTTCATTACCACTGCAATTAATATAAAACCACCCGCTCTGTCACAATACCAAACTCCCTTATTTGTATGATCCGTCTTAATTACAGCAGTCCTCCTCCTTCTCTCCCTACCAGTGCTTGCAGCCGGTATCACTATACTATTAACAGACCGTAACCTCAACACTACATTCTTTGACCCCGCAGGAGGCGGAGACCCTGTACTATACCAACATCTCNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNNN
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Empidonax fulvifrons

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 3
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: N1B - Critically Imperiled

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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Population

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Wikipedia

Buff-breasted flycatcher

The buff-breasted flycatcher (Empidonax fulvifrons) is a small insectivorous bird. It is the smallest Empidonax flycatcher, typically ranging from 11.5 to 13 cm (4.5 to 5 in) in size.

Adults have olive gray upper bodies, darker coloration on the wings and tail, conspicuous white eye rings, white wing bars, small bills, and short tails. The breast of this species is distinctive, washed with a strong orange buff color.

Their preferred breeding habitat is scrub and open woodlands. They usually make a cup nest in the forks of trees. Females usually lay two eggs at a time.

The range of the buff-breasted flycatcher extends from extreme southeastern Arizona in the United States through Mexico to southern Honduras.

These birds are partial migrants, retreating from their northern breeding areas in the United States and northern Mexico for the winter.

To feed, they often wait on an open perch of a shrub or low branch of a tree and fly out to catch insects in flight. They also sometimes pick insects from foliage while hovering.

The song is an alternating versed PIdew, piDEW. The call is a loud dry pit.

Subspecies[edit]

Various subspecies are recognized:

References[edit]

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