Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

As its name suggests, this small bird's diet consists primarily of grass seeds. The tall grass of their habitat also provides them with cover, as they use their large feet to scratch the ground to search for food (4). Often the males can be seen perched on small trees, singing in order to defend a small area, or territory. It is thought that the black-and-tawny seedeater may be a nomadic or migratory bird, as it has been observed in certain areas only during the dry season (3).
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Description

The name of this small bird describes the male of the species very well; it has a black back, crown and hindneck, and bright tawny, or brownish-orange, underparts. The wings and tail are blackish-brown, with a slight white edging. The cheeks are paler in colour and the bill is black. Females possess a larger bill than males, with paler plumage and less distinct patterns (2) (3). Their song is a simple series of four to six high-pitched, whistled notes (3). The scientific name, Sporophila, originates from Greek, meaning spore- or seed-loving, and refers to their preferred diet.
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Distribution

Range Description

Sporophila nigrorufa is currently known from eight sites in east Bolivia (Santa Cruz) and three in adjacent west-central Brazil (Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul) (Willis and Oniki 1990, S. Davis in litt. 1995, 1999). Small numbers of Sporophila sp. at three additional sites in Mato Grosso probably refer to austral winter records of this species (Willis and Oniki 1990). The major breeding site is Flor de Oro in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park, Santa Cruz. Breeding and several flocks of up to 60-70 birds have been recorded in October-December and several hundred have been estimated in late May, but very few individuals have been found in July-October (S. Davis in litt. 1995, 1999). A local density of two birds per km2 was estimated at Los Fierros, Neol Kempff Mercado, based on numbers of adult males seen in August-September (Pearce-Higgins 1996). A population of around six pairs rearing 6-10 juveniles per year occurs near San Ignacio de Velasco, Santa Cruz, in the wet season (S. Davis in litt. 1995, 1999). East of Vila Bela da Santaíssima Trinidade, Mato Grosso, 55 presumably breeding birds were counted in January 1988 (Willis and Oniki 1990), at least 100 non-breeding condition birds were present in July 1997 (L.F. Silveira in litt. 1999), 100-200 in August 2007, and 100 in June 2008 (Kirwan and Areta 2009). There is an undocumented record of a bird seen in 2005 in Bolivia's Otuquis National Park from a boat on the río Negro (Bolivia/Paraguay border). If this record can be confirmed it may indicate that the species occurs across the river in the Río Negro National Park, Paraguay, although further surveys along the río Negro have failed to find the species (H. del Castillo and R. Clay in litt. 2007; H. del Castillo in litt. 2012).

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Range

Extreme e Bolivia and sw Brazil (Mato Grosso).

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Range

Occurs in eastern Bolivia, and south western Brazil. In Bolivia it is currently known from seven sites in eastern Santa Cruz, and in Brazil it occurs at three locations in Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul (2) (3).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It breeds during the austral summer/wet season in seasonally flooded grassland with scattered bushes and trees, which are frequently clumped on decomposing termite mounds. The diet consists primarily of grass seeds. It may be nomadic and/or migratory since it seems to occur in some areas only in the dry season (Willis and Oniki 1990, S. Davis in litt. 1995, 1999) and birds recorded near Concepción, Santa Cruz, were thought to be on passage (Davis 1993).


Systems
  • Terrestrial
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The black-and-tawny seedeater inhabits seasonally flooded, tall grasslands, with scattered bushes and trees (2) (3).
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
A2c+3c+4c;C2a(i)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s
Clay, R., Davis, S., Machado, É., Silveira, L. & del Castillo, H.

Justification
This species is listed as Vulnerable because it has a small population, that is likely to be undergoing a continuous and rapid decline owing to habitat loss and degradation.

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Status

Classified as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List 2006 (1).
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Population

Population
The population estimate of 1,000-2,499 individuals is derived from Willis & Oniki (1990), Pearce-Higgins (1996), S. Davis in litt. (1995, 1999), and L. F. Silveira in litt. (1999). This equates to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
The effects of extensive and continuing conversion of grassland habitats to agriculture are intensified by its possibly nomadic and/or migratory behaviour. Satellite images reveal that large areas in west Mato Grosso have been converted to agriculture (Killeen and Schulenberg 1998). Breeding sites are presumably affected by cattle-grazing and trampling (S. Davis in litt. 1995, 1999).

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The greatest threat to the black-and-tawny seedeater is habitat loss. Extensive areas of grassland have been converted for agriculture. Intensive cattle-grazing and trampling by livestock may also impact potential breeding sites (3).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs in Noel Kempff Mercado (three sites, Bolivia), Otuquis National Park (Bolivia) and Pantanal Matogrossense (Brazil) National Parks. In 1997, Noel Kempff Mercado was expanded westward and now protects more suitable habitat where the species may occur. Domestic animals have been removed from Flor de Oro (S. Davis in litt. 1995, 1999).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to elucidate the breeding and non-breeding ranges, and the pattern and nature of movements (S. Davis in litt. 1995, 1999, Killeen and Schulenberg 1998, L.F. Silveira in litt. 1999). Survey the Paraguayan Pantanal (río Negro) and Otuquis National Park, Bolivia (H. del Castillo and R. Clay in litt. 2007). Remove domestic animals from Noel Kempff Mercado and Pantanal National Parks (Killeen and Schulenberg 1998). Manage areas beyond the boundaries of Noel Kempff Mercado (Killeen and Schulenberg 1998). Designate a protected area in the Campos do Encanto region (L.F. Silveira in litt. 1999).

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Conservation

Whilst the black-and-tawny seedeater doesn't currently receive any known conservation attention, it does occur in the Noel Kempff Mercado National Park in Bolivia, and the Pantanal Matogrossense National Park in Brazil. However, domestic animals in both these parks pose a threat, and therefore removal of them from these areas is likely to benefit the seedeater (3).
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Wikipedia

Black-and-tawny Seedeater

The Black-and-tawny Seedeater (Sporophila nigrorufa) is a species of bird in the Thraupidae family.

It is found in Bolivia and Brazil. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical seasonally wet or flooded lowland grassland. It is threatened by habitat loss.

It is also sparsely found in La Pampa Province in Argentina

References[edit]


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