Overview

Brief Summary

Taxonomy

Ampelis Riefferii Boissonneau, 1840, "Bogotá", Colombia.Closely related to P. intermedia, and has been treated as conspecific; in addition to differences in plumage (especially tail colour), however, the two overlap in range in C Peru and in some areas occur together, although they differ in attitudinal range. Distinctive race tallmanorum, from outlying mountains E of main Andean range, may merit species status. Race confusa possibly better merged with chachapoyas. Six subspecies recognized (Snow 2004).

Diagnostic description
Male Male nominate race has
  • hood blackish-green down to chest,
  • collar hood bordered by yellow (except on nape)
  • nape -
    • green above
    • white tips of tertials
    • yellow below
    • green streaks increasingly denser towards flanks
  • iris - dark red-brown;
  • bill - bright red;
  • legs - red or orange-red
Distinguished from similar P. intermedia mainly by plainer tail and less patterned underparts.Female
  • no hood or collar, has
  • head and forebody to breast plain green
Juvenile
  • is dark olive-green above
  • dull olive with yellow streaks below;
  • adult plumage apparently acquired soon after fledging


Other races
Races differ mainly in
  • size
  • shade of hood and amount of
  • green markings on underparts of male
Melanolaema has more
  • contrasting wings, more
  • solid yellow on central underparts
  • male hood glossy black (not greenish)
  • female has ill-defined yellow collar
Other species
  • occidentalis male has throat and chest washed greenish, pale tertial tips less marked
  • chachapoyas is small, male hood black, underparts well marked with green streaks
  • confusa is like last, but male with more greenish upper breast and more strongly marked central underparts
  • tallmanorum is smallest, has brighter red eyes, male has glossiest black hood, unmarked yellow lower breast and belly, female lower underparts broadly streaked green (Snow 2004)
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Introduction

Pipreola riefferii the green-and-black fruiteater is a species of bird in the Cotingidae family.The green-and-black fruiteater is found in subtropical or tropical forests of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela.
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Comprehensive Description

Biology

Size
17.5-20cm; 46-61g

Reproduction
Laying in Feb-Aug in W. Columbia.Nest a substantial cup, almost entirely of moss, lined with black rootlets, placed 1-2 m above ground in bush or small tree.Clutch 2 eggs (Snow 2004). An adult female, nest and two eggs, collected by Thomas Knight Salmon (1841-1879) and linked by collector number (no. 43) of P. r. riefferii (Boissonneau, 1840) are in the Natural History Museum (NHM). These specimens were collected in Santa Elena, 8 km east of Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia (06°15’N, 75°35’W) and included in the collector’s final consignment in September 1878 (Salaman et al 2009; Sclater & Salvin 1879).Skin Ad♀ BMNH 1888.1.20.758; Nest BMNH N/ 56.33 (nest diameter = 102.7mm, cup diameter = 68.5mm, cup depth= 35.1mm, nest depth = 62.9mm, dry weight= 17.59g); Eggs BMNH E/ SG 2818-2819 (length=26.4mm x width 20.4mm -some doubt over the designation as clutch / identity).
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Distribution

Distribution and ecology

Subspecies and Distribution
  • P. r. ntelanolaema P. L. Sclater, 1856 - mountains of NW & N Venezuela (S Lara S to C Tachira, and Aragua E to Miranda).
  • P. r riefferii (Boissonneau, 1840) - Sierra de Perija (on Colombia-Venezuela border), W Venezuela (W Tachira), and E & C Andes of Colombia.
  • P. r. occidentalis (Chapman, 1914) - W Andes (also extreme S end of C range) of Colombia and W slope in Ecuador.
  • P r. confusa J. T. Zimmer, 1936 - E Andes of Ecuador and extreme N Peru (W Amazonas).
  • P r. chachapoyas (Hellmayr, 1915) - N Peru E of R Maralion (in Amazonas and San Martin).
  • P. r. tallmanorum O'Neill & Parker, 1981 - Carpish Mts and Cerros de Sira, in Huanueo (Peru).


Habitat
Montane forest, forest borders and secondary woodland; mostly 1000-2900 m, locally higher, to 3050 m, exceptionally to 3300 m (Snow 2004).

Trophic strategy
Apparently only fruit. In E Andes of Colombia, fruits of 16 plant species, from eight families, recorded, with those of Chloranthaceae, Ericaceae and Melastomataceae numerically most important. Plucks fruits while perched or during clumsy hover. Often accompanies mixed-species foraging flocks (Snow 2004).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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Conservation

  • Not globally threatened
  • Uncommon to fairly common or common
  • The most widespread and abundant of the Andean fruiteaters and ecologically the most tolerant
  • Occurs in several reserves and other protected areas (Snow 2004)
  • 2009 IUCN Red List Category (as evaluated by BirdLife International - the official Red List Authority for birds for IUCN): Least Concern (BirdLife International 2009)
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Population

Population
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'fairly common' (Stotz et al. (1996).

Population Trend
Stable
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Wikipedia

Green-and-black fruiteater

The green-and-black fruiteater (Pipreola riefferii) is a species of bird in the Cotingidae family.

It is found in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. Because of its range and population size this species is not classified as vulnerable.[2]

References[edit]


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