Male Male nominate race has
- hood blackish-green down to chest,
- collar hood bordered by yellow (except on nape)
- nape -
- green above
- white tips of tertials
- yellow below
- green streaks increasingly denser towards flanks
- iris - dark red-brown;
- bill - bright red;
- legs - red or orange-red
- no hood or collar, has
- head and forebody to breast plain green
- is dark olive-green above
- dull olive with yellow streaks below;
- adult plumage apparently acquired soon after fledging
Races differ mainly in
- shade of hood and amount of
- green markings on underparts of male
- contrasting wings, more
- solid yellow on central underparts
- male hood glossy black (not greenish)
- female has ill-defined yellow collar
- occidentalis male has throat and chest washed greenish, pale tertial tips less marked
- chachapoyas is small, male hood black, underparts well marked with green streaks
- confusa is like last, but male with more greenish upper breast and more strongly marked central underparts
- tallmanorum is smallest, has brighter red eyes, male has glossiest black hood, unmarked yellow lower breast and belly, female lower underparts broadly streaked green (Snow 2004)
Laying in Feb-Aug in W. Columbia.Nest a substantial cup, almost entirely of moss, lined with black rootlets, placed 1-2 m above ground in bush or small tree.Clutch 2 eggs (Snow 2004). An adult female, nest and two eggs, collected by Thomas Knight Salmon (1841-1879) and linked by collector number (no. 43) of P. r. riefferii (Boissonneau, 1840) are in the Natural History Museum (NHM). These specimens were collected in Santa Elena, 8 km east of Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia (06°15’N, 75°35’W) and included in the collector’s final consignment in September 1878 (Salaman et al 2009; Sclater & Salvin 1879).Skin Ad♀ BMNH 18126.96.36.1998; Nest BMNH N/ 56.33 (nest diameter = 102.7mm, cup diameter = 68.5mm, cup depth= 35.1mm, nest depth = 62.9mm, dry weight= 17.59g); Eggs BMNH E/ SG 2818-2819 (length=26.4mm x width 20.4mm -some doubt over the designation as clutch / identity).
Distribution and ecology
- P. r. ntelanolaema P. L. Sclater, 1856 - mountains of NW & N Venezuela (S Lara S to C Tachira, and Aragua E to Miranda).
- P. r riefferii (Boissonneau, 1840) - Sierra de Perija (on Colombia-Venezuela border), W Venezuela (W Tachira), and E & C Andes of Colombia.
- P. r. occidentalis (Chapman, 1914) - W Andes (also extreme S end of C range) of Colombia and W slope in Ecuador.
- P r. confusa J. T. Zimmer, 1936 - E Andes of Ecuador and extreme N Peru (W Amazonas).
- P r. chachapoyas (Hellmayr, 1915) - N Peru E of R Maralion (in Amazonas and San Martin).
- P. r. tallmanorum O'Neill & Parker, 1981 - Carpish Mts and Cerros de Sira, in Huanueo (Peru).
Montane forest, forest borders and secondary woodland; mostly 1000-2900 m, locally higher, to 3050 m, exceptionally to 3300 m (Snow 2004).
Apparently only fruit. In E Andes of Colombia, fruits of 16 plant species, from eight families, recorded, with those of Chloranthaceae, Ericaceae and Melastomataceae numerically most important. Plucks fruits while perched or during clumsy hover. Often accompanies mixed-species foraging flocks (Snow 2004).
Habitat and Ecology
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
- Not globally threatened
- Uncommon to fairly common or common
- The most widespread and abundant of the Andean fruiteaters and ecologically the most tolerant
- Occurs in several reserves and other protected areas (Snow 2004)
- 2009 IUCN Red List Category (as evaluated by BirdLife International - the official Red List Authority for birds for IUCN): Least Concern (BirdLife International 2009)
It is found in Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. Because of its range and population size this species is not classified as vulnerable.
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