Hunting pressure is rapidly increasing due infrastructural development and advancing colonization frontiers (Jahn and Mena 2002b, Crdenas 2007). It is easy to locate the traditional lek sites and to approach the displaying males, making it an easy bag for hunters (Jahn et al
. 1999, Jahn and Mena 2002b). Rapid deforestation rates have continued to affect Esmeraldas and Nario during the 1990s ( Salaman 1994, WWF/ IUCN 1994-1997, Salaman and Stiles 1996, Sharpe 1999). By 1996, in western Ecuador the remnant cover of evergreen lowland and premontane forests was only 18% and 40% respectively. (Sierra 1999). In Esmeraldas, annual deforestation rates in the lowlands (<300m) were 3.8% and accumulated loss of primary forest >38% during the last decade (Crdenas 2007). During the same period, the cover of primary premontane forest (300-1300m) was reduced by 7% (Crdenas 2007). At higher altitudes and in Cauca and south Valle de Cauca, Colombia, deforestation has been slower and more habitat remains (
Dodson and Gentry 1991, P. G. W. Salaman in litt
. 1999). However, plans to colonise and develop remoter areas are progressing through infrastructural improvements, particularly the rapid expansion of the road network, which have increased the impact of logging, small-scale agriculture, illegal coca plantations, gold mining and hunting (Ridgely and Tudor 1994, Salaman 1994, WWF/ IUCN 1994-1997, Salaman and Stiles 1996, Bowen-Jones et al
. 1999, Jahn et al
. 1999), which is already affecting some key protected areas (Jahn and Mena 2002b, O. Jahn in litt.
2007, P. Mena Valenzuela
in litt. 2007). Intensive agricultural development is a major threat, especially oil palm and banana plantations and livestock-farming (Dodson and Gentry 1991, WWF/ IUCN 1994-1997, P. Coopmans in litt
. 1998, Bowen-Jones et al
. 1999, Sharpe 1999). Since 2004, some indigenous communities within the Aw Ethnic Reserve have converted their forest into oil palm plantations (O. Jahn in litt.
2007). It also suffers from trade (Ridgely and Tudor 1994, Jahn et al
. 1999): in the Ventanas area of Esmeraldas, they are highly prized as domestic birds, and local people capture them as pets, for sale to third parties and to eat (Sharpe 1999).