IUCN threat status:

Least Concern (LC)

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The typical jays of the genus Garrulus number only 3 species. The Eurasian jay is polytypic and has an extensive range, while the other two, Lanceolated jay and Lidth’s jay, have relatively tiny ranges. They are characterized by similar and undoubtedly homologous blue-and-black barred feathers on the wings and/or tail. Also by traces of similar barring on the head feathers in most cases, and a strong resemblance in movements, ecology and voice.They appear most closely related on one hand to the green and blue magpies of the genus Cissa and on the other to the boreal jays of the genus Perisoreus, to which they seem to be linked by the Sooty jay P. internigrans. Over the greater part of their combined ranges the species of Garullus are completely allopatric but the Eurasian jay and the Lanceolated jay overlap in the Western Himalayas.The Eurasian jay has a much more extensive range than either of its congeners. Within its range it shows considerable geographic variation. Some populations now appear to be completely isolated from their nearest relatives by sea or unsuitable terrain. As, however, at least as far as their taxonomic characters are concerned, the most divers forms are connected by intergrades and no instance is known of two forms coming together and not interbreeding to form a mixed population, they seem best all treated as members of a single polytypic species.Within each major group of the more diverse forms, numerous races (or one might better say micro-races) of the jay have been named and recognized. Sometimes, it seems, those who have done so had an ability to recognize geographical variation in inverse relation to their ability to recognize individual variation. However, the numerous races within the species can be divided in five comprehensive major racial groups.

Glandarius group
  • Crown of head streaked or black
  • White patch on secondaries
  • Cheeks white or brownish
  • Irides usually purplish, mauve or bluish but sometimes dark
  • Range: Europe, western Asia and north-western Africa

Brandtii group
  • Crown of head streaked
  • Head and neck rufous, contrasting with the greyish back
  • White patch on secondaries
  • Bill tending to be rather smaller than in glandarius group
  • Range: north-eastern Russia through Siberia to Manchuria, Korea, and northern Japan (Hokkaido)
  • Intergrades (or interbreeds) with glandarius group in the Urals

Japonicus group
  • Loral region black and contiguous with the black malar stripes
  • Edges of crown feathers nearly snow-white, giving a very bright black and white appearance to top head with consequent much greater contrast than in any other jays with streaked crowns
  • Range: Japan (except Hokkaido)

Bispecularis group
  • Crown of head immaculate
  • Blue patch on secondaries
  • Bill rather small
  • Irides dark brown (western races) to greyish (eastern races)
  • Range: western Himalayans to Formosa
  • Intergrades with brandtii group in northern China

Leucotis group
  • Crown of head black
  • Blue patch on secondaries
  • Cheeks white
  • Irides dark brown
  • Range: Burma, Thailand (Siam), Laos, Annam and Cochin China
  • Forms intermediate between the leucotis group and the bispecularis group occur in northern Burma


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