Comprehensive DescriptionRead full entry
Nominate race is ferruginous above, crown duller, lores and indistinct supercilium dull rufous, uppertail- coverts dull rufous- brown, lower side of face dull tawny- rufous with black shaft streaks, ear coverts dusky rufous- brown; primaries edged tawny- brown, inner secondaries entirely tawny- brown on outer webs, upperwing- coverts olive- brown, edged tawny- brown on outer webs; tail dull rufous- brown, outermost feather pair edged tawny- brown on outer web; light dull rufous below, throat and breast broadly streaked grey; iris chestnut- brown; bill dull brownish and horn; legs grey. Sexes alike. Juvenile is darker rufous on upperparts and wing coverts, underparts somewhat browner; immature similar to adult, but retains rufous- edged juvenile secondaries and wing- coverts. Races fall into several subgroups according to plumage and bill colour, with some forms intermediate between these: aruensis is similar to nominate, but upperparts more greyish- brown, underparts less rufous; misoliensis similar to nominate, but ventrally much paler and more clay- coloured; ferruginea differs from nominate in having upperparts browner, less green, sides of head and underparts slightly redder; batantae has upperparts dark olive- brown, throat buff, underparts rufous with grey suffusion, throat and breast well streaked and mottled with grey, bill sooty; affinis has upperparts olive- tinged greyish- brown, remiges and rectrices with some rufous edging, underparts greyish, slightly suffused buff, lightly streaked, bill pale brown and horn; obscura has upperparts brownish- grey, underparts grey with brownish tingle, throat streaked dark grey, breast mottled dark brown; hybridus is like previous, but breast and flanks slightly more gingery; melanorhyncha is dark olive- brown above, wings rufous, underparts paler, more olive (less rufous), streaking on underparts reduced or absent , bill dark horn; idenburgi has head greyish- olive, underparts pale, slightly buff, breast more evidently streaked, adult male bill; maeandrina has upperparts olive- brown, underparts buffier, throat and breast streaked and mottled dark grey- brown, bill blackish; tappenbecki has upperparts browner, duller, less olive, throat and upper breast greyer, contrasting more with ochraceous belly, bill brown; superflua is paler than last, duller, with underparts less ochraceous; madaraszi has upperparts less olive; neos has throat grey, bill dark grey; palmer is similar to previous but throat buffier, less grey, streaks on breast more distinct, bill more straw- coloured; goodsoni is much paler, duller and less olive above, particularly on crown; despecta is paler, upperparts slightly more olive; fortis has crown grey, back olive- green, wing grey with green tinge, off- white or grey below, breast and flanks washed darker, throat and breast streaked, undertail- coverts pale yellow, bill black in both sexes; discolor is similar to previous, but crown brown, rump and uppertail- coverts yellowish- olive, underparts browner; trobriandi is also similar but wing and bill longer, throat and breast deeper grey, belly paler; aelptes is large, uniformly pale tawny, breast with little or no streaking, bill long and pinkish- brown; normani is small, mid- khaki in tone, breast streaking absent; griseata is also small, rich rufous- brown, remiges edged rufous; synaptica is small, deep olive- grey withbrownish wash, clear breast streaks; gouldii is large, pale, greyer, bill shorter; rufogaster is larger still, deep rufous brown, breast streaks clearer; parvula is distinctive, crown and upperparts dark grey- brown, tinged with olive, supercilium light grey or white, lores whitish- grey, throat white with fine streaking, breast buff- brown, central belly whitish or whitish- grey, undertail- coverts grey with fine streaks, bill black.