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Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Bombycilla japonica breeds only in the far east of Russia, where it has been found nesting in eastern Yakutia, Khabarovsk and Amur (BirdLife International 2001). It is generally uncommon, but locally common on the breeding grounds, and its total population may be moderately small. It is a non-breeding visitor to Japan, where it is uncommon and sporadic, North and South Korea, where it is irregular and uncommon, mainland China, where it is uncommon in the north and rare in the south, and Taiwan (China).

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Range

SE Siberia and n Manchuria; winters to s China and Ryukyu Is..
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

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西伯利亚东部越冬至日本及琉球群岛。
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It breeds in forested areas (favouring conifers), requiring fruiting trees to meet its dietary requirements. In winter, it occurs in deciduous and mixed forest but also more open habitats including parks and gardens if fruit trees are present. Also feeds on insects while breeding. The species breeds late in the boreal summer, laying eggs in June-July. It undertakes a relatively short migration, appearing to move in response to variable fruit crops.


Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bombycilla japonica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This scarce species is thought to have a moderately small global population size, and is threatened by both habitat loss and persecution for the wild bird trade. It is therefore currently considered Near Threatened, and should be carefully monitored.


History
  • Near Threatened (NT)
  • Near Threatened (NT)
  • Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
  • Lower Risk/near threatened (LR/nt)
  • Lower Risk/least concern (LR/lc)
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Population

Population
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as generally uncommon, although locally common in suitable habitat (del Hoyo et al. 2007), while national population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; c.50-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
It has presumably been affected by the logging and development of its forest habitat, particularly on the breeding grounds. Since 1998, 5,390 wild individuals have been imported into EU countries alone, the majority exported from China (UNEP-WCMC CITES Trade Database, January 2005), a level of trade that might be a significant threat to the species.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Conservation Actions Underway
The species is listed in Annex D of the EU Wildlife Trade Regulations and therefore EU import levels are monitored.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue to monitor levels of international trade in this species. Monitor rates of forest loss on the species's breeding grounds. Conduct ecological studies to determine habitat requirements throughout the annual cycle. Protect areas of suitable habitat and safeguard against logging and development.

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