- Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/
Habitat and Ecology
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bombycilla japonica
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
The species is listed in Annex D of the EU Wildlife Trade Regulations and therefore EU import levels are monitored. Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue to monitor levels of international trade in this species. Monitor rates of forest loss on the species's breeding grounds. Conduct ecological studies to determine habitat requirements throughout the annual cycle. Protect areas of suitable habitat and safeguard against logging and development.
The Japanese waxwing (Bombycilla japonica) is a fairly small passerine bird of the waxwing family found in north-east Asia. It feeds mainly on fruit and berries but also eats insects during the summer. The nest is a cup of twigs lined with grass and moss which is built in a tree.
The Japanese waxwing is about 18 cm in length and its plumage is mostly pinkish-brown. It has a pointed crest, a black throat, a black stripe through the eye, a pale yellow centre to the belly and a black tail with a red tip. The wings have a pattern of black, grey and white with a reddish-brown stripe running across them. Its call is a high-pitched trill but there is no true song.
Unlike the other species of waxwing, it lacks the row of waxy red feather-tips on the wing which gives the birds their name. Japanese waxwings often occur in mixed flocks with Bohemian waxwings which, as well as having the row of waxy tips, are slightly larger with a yellow tail-tip, greyish centre to the belly and no reddish-brown stripe across the wing.
Distribution and habitat
The Japanese waxwing breeds in coniferous forests in the Russian Far East and in Heilongjiang province, north-east China. It is at some risk of becoming threatened with extinction due to loss and degradation of its forest habitat.
It winters in Japan, Korea and eastern China; the exact distribution is irregular as flocks move in search of berries and birds may be common in an area one year and scarce the next. In Japan it is present from November to April; few birds winter on Hokkaidō but in south-western Japan, it outnumbers the Bohemian waxwing. The winter habitat is open woodland or farmland in the lowlands or low mountains and birds frequently visit berry-laden trees in parks and gardens.
- Mark A. Brazil (1991) The Birds of Japan, Christopher Helm, London
- John MacKinnon & Karen Phillipps (2000) A Field Guide to the Birds of China, Oxford University Press, Oxford