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Overview

Distribution

Range Description

Bombycilla japonica breeds only in the far east of Russia, where it has been found nesting in eastern Yakutia, Khabarovsk and Amur (BirdLife International 2001). It is generally uncommon, but locally common on the breeding grounds, and its total population may be moderately small. It is a non-breeding visitor to Japan, where it is uncommon and sporadic, North and South Korea, where it is irregular and uncommon, mainland China, where it is uncommon in the north and rare in the south, and Taiwan (China).

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Range

SE Siberia and n Manchuria; winters to s China and Ryukyu Is..

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西伯利亚东部越冬至日本及琉球群岛。
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It breeds in forested areas (favouring conifers), requiring fruiting trees to meet its dietary requirements. In winter, it occurs in deciduous and mixed forest but also more open habitats including parks and gardens if fruit trees are present. Also feeds on insects while breeding. The species breeds late in the boreal summer, laying eggs in June-July. It undertakes a relatively short migration, appearing to move in response to variable fruit crops.


Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Bombycilla japonica

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 7
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
NT
Near Threatened

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This scarce species is thought to have a moderately small global population size, and is threatened by both habitat loss and persecution for the wild bird trade. It is therefore currently considered Near Threatened, and should be carefully monitored.

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Population

Population
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as generally uncommon, although locally common in suitable habitat (del Hoyo et al. 2007), while national population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; c.50-10,000 individuals on migration and c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
It has presumably been affected by the logging and development of its forest habitat, particularly on the breeding grounds. Since 1998, 5,390 wild individuals have been imported into EU countries alone, the majority exported from China (UNEP-WCMC CITES Trade Database, January 2005), a level of trade that might be a significant threat to the species.

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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Conservation Actions Underway
The species is listed in Annex D of the EU Wildlife Trade Regulations and therefore EU import levels are monitored.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue to monitor levels of international trade in this species. Monitor rates of forest loss on the species's breeding grounds. Conduct ecological studies to determine habitat requirements throughout the annual cycle. Protect areas of suitable habitat and safeguard against logging and development.

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Wikipedia

Japanese waxwing

The Japanese waxwing (Bombycilla japonica) is a fairly small passerine bird of the waxwing family found in north-east Asia. It feeds mainly on fruit and berries but also eats insects during the summer. The nest is a cup of twigs lined with grass and moss which is built in a tree.

Description[edit]

The Japanese waxwing is about 18 cm in length and its plumage is mostly pinkish-brown. It has a pointed crest, a black throat, a black stripe through the eye, a pale yellow centre to the belly and a black tail with a red tip. The wings have a pattern of black, grey and white with a reddish-brown stripe running across them. Its call is a high-pitched trill but there is no true song.

Unlike the other species of waxwing, it lacks the row of waxy red feather-tips on the wing which gives the birds their name. Japanese waxwings often occur in mixed flocks with Bohemian waxwings which, as well as having the row of waxy tips, are slightly larger with a yellow tail-tip, greyish centre to the belly and no reddish-brown stripe across the wing.

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Two Japanese waxwings feeding on berries

The Japanese waxwing breeds in coniferous forests in the Russian Far East and in Heilongjiang province, north-east China. It is at some risk of becoming threatened with extinction due to loss and degradation of its forest habitat.

It winters in Japan, Korea and eastern China; the exact distribution is irregular as flocks move in search of berries and birds may be common in an area one year and scarce the next. In Japan it is present from November to April; few birds winter on Hokkaidō but in south-western Japan, it outnumbers the Bohemian waxwing. The winter habitat is open woodland or farmland in the lowlands or low mountains and birds frequently visit berry-laden trees in parks and gardens.

Vagrant birds appear in Hong Kong, central China and Taiwan but records from Europe are more likely to be escapes from captivity than genuinely wild birds.

References[edit]

  • Mark A. Brazil (1991) The Birds of Japan, Christopher Helm, London
  • John MacKinnon & Karen Phillipps (2000) A Field Guide to the Birds of China, Oxford University Press, Oxford
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