occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations
Regularity: Regularly occurring
Type of Residency: Year-round
Global Range: (>2,500,000 square km (greater than 1,000,000 square miles)) RESIDENT: from southern Sonora, central and southern Texas, and southern Louisiana (rare) south through Middle and South America to northern Chile and northwestern Argentina; formerly in southern Baja California. Wanders irregularly east along Gulf coast to peninsular Florida.
- Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, B.L. Sullivan, C. L. Wood, and D. Roberson. 2012. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.7. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/downloadable-clements-checklist
Length: 34 cm
Weight: 87 grams
Comments: ALL SEASONS: Open and partly open country, including scrub, thickets, cultivated lands, savanna, orchards, marshes, and second growth. BREEDING: Nests usually in low tree, shrubby thicket, or on cactus clump (Harrison 1978).
Habitat and Ecology
Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.
Comments: Eats mainly insects taken from ground or from shrubs, also small fruits and occasionally lizards; often forages near grazing cattle (Terres 1980)
Often in loose flocks of up to 15, usually about 6-8, occasionally in pairs (Stiles and Skutch 1989). In Costa Rica, most young (75%) dispersed from natal area (Bowen et al. 1989).
Life History and Behavior
Clutch size 3-5. Several females (of 2-4 cooperating pairs, Stiles and Skutch 1989) may lay total of 15 eggs in one nest. Incubation 13-14 days, by both sexes; several birds may incubate. Young tended by all members of group, including young of earlier brood.
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Crotophaga sulcirostris
There are 5 barcode sequences available from BOLD and GenBank. Below is a sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species. See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen and other sequences.
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Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Crotophaga sulcirostris
Public Records: 4
Specimens with Barcodes: 13
Species With Barcodes: 1
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N4 - Apparently Secure
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G5 - Secure
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
The groove-billed ani (Crotophaga sulcirostris) is an odd-looking tropical bird in the cuckoo family with a long tail and a large, curved beak. It is a resident species throughout most of its range, from southern Texas, central Mexico and The Bahamas, through Central America, to northern Colombia and Venezuela, and coastal Ecuador and Peru. It only retreats from the northern limits of its range in Texas and northern Mexico during winter.
The groove-billed ani is about 34 cm (13 in) long, and weighs 70–90 g (2.5–3.2 oz). It is completely black, with a very long tail almost as long as its body. It has a huge bill with horizontal grooves along the length of the upper mandible. It is very similar to the smooth-billed ani, some of which have bills as small as the groove-billed and with grooves on the basal half. The two species are best distinguished by voice and range. In flight, the ani alternates between quick, choppy flaps and short glides.
The groove-billed ani lives in small groups of one to five breeding pairs. They defend a single territory and lay their eggs in one communal nest. All group members incubate the eggs and care for the young.
- Cisneros-Heredia, Diego F. "Información Sobre la Distribución de Algunas Especies de Aves de Ecuador" (PDF). Boletín SAO (in Spanish) XVI (1): 7.