DistributionRead full entry
Range DescriptionTetrax tetrax has two widely separated breeding populations. In its eastern range it occurs in Russia (likely to have been previously underestimated at 9,000 displaying males as 14,000-17,000 individuals were reported in one region alone [Orenburg] in the last two years [A. Antonchikov in litt. 2012]), Georgia (60 non-breeding individuals [E. GarcÃa in litt. 2007]), Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan (c.20,000 individuals and likely to be increasing [N. Petkov in litt. 2012]), Ukraine (100-110 individuals [Y. Andryuschenko in litt. 1999]), north-west China, northern Iran and Turkey (20-100 pairs [Eken and Magnin 1999]). Its western range covers Spain (71-147,000 individuals comprising 41,482-86,195 breeding males [GarcÃa de la Morena, et al. 2006], down from 100,000-200,000 males in the 1990s [De Juana and MartÃnez 1996]) and Portugal (c.17,500 displaying males [E. GarcÃa in litt. 2007]), with smaller populations in Italy (1,515-2,220 individuals [E. GarcÃa in litt. 2007]), France (1,677-1875 displaying males in 2008 [Jolivet 2009]) and Morocco. Eastern populations winter from Turkey and the Caucasus to Iran, and erratically elsewhere in south Asia, with Azerbaijan holding the main wintering quarters (over 150,000 individuals in 2005-2006 [Gauger 2007, E. GarcÃa in litt. 2007]) and sightings in the winter of 2010 report 25,000 and 50,000-70, 000 individuals in Adjinohur valley and Shirvan National Park respectively (Gauger and HeiÃ 2010). Western populations winter in the Mediterranean zone, with the Iberian peninsula holding the most important wintering quarters (a minimum of 16,429-35,929 and 11,200 individuals in Spain and Portugal, respectively) (E. GarcÃa in litt. 2007). The global population (excluding Kazakhstan) was estimated at a minimum of c.240,000 individuals in the late 1990s (C. MartÃnez in litt. 1999), but it may be substantially lower than this, due to the re-evaluation of the size of the Spanish population (GarcÃa et al. 2007). Whilst it remains widespread and numerous, in some parts of its range it has declined dramatically since the 19th century, leading to extinctions in at least 11 European countries, Algeria, Tunisia and probably as a breeding bird in Azerbaijan. The species has now disappeared from mainland Italy, where it occurred in Apulia, and it is presently declining in France and Spain (V. Bretagnolle in litt. 2007). In Portugal, the population appears to be stable, and eastern populations are said to have increased in recent years (E. GarcÃa in litt. 2007). The population in the Eurasian steppe belt is thought to have recovered due to an increase in fallow land during the transition process of the former Soviet Union (Gauger 2007).