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Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Recognisable in flight by its rapid and shallow wing beats, the green-cheeked Amazon gathers in large flocks which fly in formation, feeding together and calling 'kee-craw craw craw' in chorus, particularly in the morning and evening (8). They pick at seeds, berries, flowers and nectar, wastefully pecking at them and dropping the rest. Between March and May, green-cheeked Amazons court and mate in monogamous pairs, nesting together in loose colonies in large, old trees (5). Between two and five eggs are laid each year, hatching after about 26 days. The young will leave the nest after around 68 days (2). During the non-breeding season, the green-cheeked Amazon is nomadic and moves to higher elevations (5) in flocks of up to 100 (9).
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Description

The green-cheeked Amazon is a striking bird with a large head and a big, yellow bill (6). The feathers are mainly green, with black edges, but the forehead is bright red (2). A half-moon shaped blue-violet band runs from the cheeks around the back of the head (7). The primaries have blue tips and the tail is tipped with yellow (2). The legs are grey-green (2) and the feet have two toes facing forwards and two toes facing backwards (6).
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Distribution

Range Description

Amazona viridigenalis is locally and seasonally fairly common to common on the Atlantic slope of north-east Mexico (Howell and Webb 1995a), mostly in Tamaulipas and San Luis Potos, with small colonies in extreme north-east Quertaro (A.G.Navarro in litt. 1998). It formerly occurred in Nuevo Len and Veracruz, but there have been no records of wild birds since 1945 and 1960 respectively. In 1992-1994, densities in one area were estimated at 5.7 birds/km2, indicating a wild population of 3,000-6,500 birds (E.C.Enkerlin-Hoeflich in litt. 1994, Enkerlin-Hoeflich 1995). This compares with 25.2 birds/km2 reported in the 1970s (Castro 1976). The population recently established in urban areas of the Lower Rio Grande Valley (Texas), USA, is considered by some to consist of wild birds (T. Brush in litt. 2003). Introduced or feral populations are also established (and mostly increasing) in Florida and California (USA), Puerto Rico (to USA), O'ahu (Hawaii) and several parts of Mexico (Enkerlin-Hoeflich and Hogan 1997).

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Unknown/Undetermined

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Non-breeding

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occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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Global Range: RESIDENT: lowlands of northeastern Mexico. Introduced and established in Los Angeles area, California; Dade County, Florida; Puerto Rico (Rio Piedras, Vega Baja, Rincon, and Salinas); and Oahu, Hawaii. Rare fall and winter visitor to southern Texas (though records possibly are based on escaped cage birds).

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Range

Lowlands of ne Mexico (Nuevo León to n Veracruz).
  • Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, D. Roberson, T. A. Fredericks, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2014. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: Version 6.9. Downloaded from http://www.birds.cornell.edu/clementschecklist/download/

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Range

The natural range of this bird is small areas of Mexico, but it has been introduced to Puerto Rico and the sates of Florida and California, USA, where it has become naturalised (1).
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Physical Description

Size

Length: 32 cm

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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It inhabits lush areas in arid lowlands and foothills, especially gallery forest, deciduous woodland and dry, open pine-oak woodland on ridges up to 1,000 m. Smaller numbers occur in agricultural landscapes with a few large trees. Nests are usually in tree-cavities, with breeding from March-May. Clutches of 2-5 eggs are incubated for 25-31 days (Enkerlin-Hoeflich and Hogan 1997). It is nomadic in winter, with large flocks moving south (and apparently north) and to higher elevations. It feeds largely on the fruits of dominant tree species (Enkerlin-Hoeflich and Hogan 1997).


Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Comments: Native range: forested regions, especially lowland deciduous forest and pine-oak woodland, foraging also in cultivated lands. Also suburban areas where introduced. BREEDING: Nests in tree cavities.

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The green-cheeked Amazon inhabits arid tropical lowlands, dry open pine-oak ridges and tropical deciduous forests in its natural range. It has settled in suburban areas with mature trees and parks in the new areas of its range (8).
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Migration

Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Population Biology

Global Abundance

2500 - 10,000 individuals

Comments: Total population 3,000 to 6,500 (Juniper and Parr 1998).

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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Amazona viridigenalis

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


No available public DNA sequences.

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Amazona viridigenalis

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S.

Contributor/s
Brush, T., Enkerlin-Hoeflich, E. & Navarro, A.

Justification
The combination of high levels of exploitation for the cagebird trade, long-term habitat loss and reduced density estimates indicates that this species is declining very rapidly. It consequently qualifies as Endangered.


History
  • 2012
    Endangered (EN)
  • Endangered (EN)
  • Endangered (EN)
  • Endangered (EN)
  • Endangered (EN)
  • Endangered (EN)
  • Threatened (T)
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