Regularity: Regularly occurring
Type of Residency: Non-breeding
occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations
Global Range: RESIDENT: lowlands of northeastern Mexico. Introduced and established in Los Angeles area, California; Dade County, Florida; Puerto Rico (Rio Piedras, Vega Baja, Rincon, and Salinas); and Oahu, Hawaii. Rare fall and winter visitor to southern Texas (though records possibly are based on escaped cage birds).
Length: 32 cm
Habitat and Ecology
Comments: Native range: forested regions, especially lowland deciduous forest and pine-oak woodland, foraging also in cultivated lands. Also suburban areas where introduced. BREEDING: Nests in tree cavities.
Non-Migrant: Yes. At least some populations of this species do not make significant seasonal migrations. Juvenile dispersal is not considered a migration.
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).
Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.
2500 - 10,000 individuals
Comments: Total population 3,000 to 6,500 (Juniper and Parr 1998).
Molecular Biology and Genetics
Barcode data: Amazona viridigenalis
No available public DNA sequences.
Download FASTA File
Statistics of barcoding coverage: Amazona viridigenalis
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 6
Species With Barcodes: 1
IUCN Red List Assessment
Red List Category
Red List Criteria
National NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded National Status Rank: N2 - Imperiled
NatureServe Conservation Status
Rounded Global Status Rank: G2 - Imperiled
Comments: Popular cage bird; at least formerly traded in large numbers (Juniper and Parr 1998). Other threats: habitat destruction, shooting to prevent crop damage (Juniper and Parr 1998).
CITES Appendix I (1992) and part of the European Endangered [Species] Programme of the European Association of Zoos and Aquaria (EAZA). It occurs in El Cielo and Sierra Gorda Biosphere Reserves (A. G. Navarro in litt. 1998, T. Brush in litt. 2003), but there are only small colonies in Sierra Gorda and its status in El Cielo is unknown (Wege and Long 1995, A. G. Navarro in litt. 1998). Ranchers are increasingly aware of the benefits of maintaining large trees, but this is not reflected in practice. Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys to obtain an estimate for the total population size. Monitor populations to determine the extent of declines. Identify the most important nesting aggregations for protection (Enkerlin-Hoeflich and Hogan 1997). Integrate ranchers into efforts to curtail trapping and regenerate habitat (Enkerlin-Hoeflich and Hogan 1997).
Relevance to Humans and Ecosystems
Stewardship Overview: See Beissinger and Snyder (1991).
The red-crowned amazon, (Amazona viridigenalis) also known as red-crowned parrot, green-cheeked amazon, or Mexican red-headed parrot, is an endangered amazon parrot native to northeastern Mexico. The current native wild population of between 1,000 and 2,000 is decreasing. The main threats to its survival are the illegal export of trapped birds from Mexico to the United States and the destruction of habitat.
Their appearance is generally green with the most notable features being a bright red forehead and crown, dark blue streak behind the eyes, and light green cheeks.
Their natural range is across the lowlands of northeastern Mexico. Feral birds have bred in urban communities of southern California, southern Florida, and the island of Oahu in Hawaii. Birds in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas may be either feral, descendants of natural vagrants from Mexico, or both.
They gather in large flocks being noisiest in the morning and evening. The characteristic screeching heard of these birds usually occurs when they travel in a large flock to a new feeding area. Their diet consists of seeds, fruits, flowers and nectar. Red-crowned amazons nest in tree cavities, like most other parrots.
These parrots are often kept as pets and can be very affectionate and playful when given the attention they need from their owners. Although some are excellent talkers and copy voices, they are best at mimicking sounds.
Names and Taxonomy
Comments: Appears to constitute a superspecies with A. finschi, A. cucumana, and A. pretrei (AOU 1998).
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