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Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Green peafowl wander widely, but are not migratory. Females and juveniles travel in groups of two to six individuals, and do not form pair bonds or harems with males. However, when peahens (female peafowl) pass through the territory of a mature male during the breeding season, he will court them, dancing and displaying his impressive train in an upright fan-shape (5). This takes place between April and June, and results in four to six eggs which are incubated by the female for 26 to 28 days. The young green peafowl can fly within two weeks of hatching, but will remain with the adults until the next breeding season. Adults moult after breeding, and although males lose their magnificent trains, the wing feather regenerate so rapidly that they can fly throughout the moult. Associations between males, females and juveniles are not fully understood, and many breeding systems appear to exist. Although in the wild males are solitary, in captivity, green peafowl form monogamous pairs (5). Green peafowl are omnivorous, foraging for grains, seeds, insects, shoots, buds, young leaves, and fruit (5).
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Description

Famous for the glorious train carried by the male, the green peacock lifts these metre-long iridescent upper tail feathers into a quivering fan when displaying. Each of the 200 metallic feathers ends in a beautiful brown, green and gold eyespot. The green peafowl is less well known, but perhaps even more spectacular than its close relative the India blue (Pavo cristatus), and has a more upright posture, a greener neck, and a darker, more golden train. The male has a long, green and tightly bundled head-crest which is held erect. The feathers of the head and neck are dark bluish-green and have a metallic sheen, but leave bare blue and yellow skin on show beneath the eyes. The wings are dark green and blue with pale brown flight feathers. Females are not brown, as in the India blue, but are a less vivid shade of green, and lack the train. Juveniles resemble the female. Males call with a repeated, territorial 'ki-wao', whereas females give a loud 'aow-aa' (2). Three subspecies are known: Pavo muticus muticus which is the brightest of the subspecies, having iridescent blue and green wings, P. m. spicifer which is duller in colour, with less green and more blue feathers, and P. m. imperator which has darker sides, belly and secondaries, and lighter facial skin than the other subspecies (4).
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Distribution

Range Description

Pavo muticus has a large ancestral range, across which it was once common and widespread (BirdLife International 2001). It has undergone a serious decline and the only sizeable remaining populations are found in dry forests in Cambodia (Evans and Clements 2004, S. Browne in litt. 2007), Myanmar (W. Duckworth in litt. 2008) and west-central Vietnam (Brickle 2002). Outside of this region populations persist in western and northern Thailand (W. Meckvichai in litt. 2004), the southern portion of Laos, Annam in Vietnam, Yunnan in China (Han et al. 2009) and on Java in Indonesia. In India, individuals are occasionally encountered in Manipur (A. Choudhury in litt. 2004), and one was recorded in southern Mizoram in 2007 (Choudhury 2009), but it may be extinct elsewhere in north-east India and Bangladesh, and is extinct in Malaysia and peninsular Thailand. The population evidently declined dramatically during the 20th century, leading to range contraction and local extinctions; current pressures remain intense, with very rapid and on-going declines suspected based on rates of disturbance and habitat conversion across South-East Asia. However, where protected areas are effectively managed, such as Seima Biodiversity Conservation Area, populations are increasing (T. Clements in litt. 2007). The development of an effective survey methodology and increased survey effort within its range has led to an increase in records, especially from Cambodia, Thailand (Mekvichai et al. in prep). and China, and hence the conservative population estimate of 5,000-10,000 individuals generated in 1995 has been revised to 10,000-19,999 mature individuals.

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Range

This conspicuous species was once common and widespread across Asia, but is now only patchily distributed in Yunnan, China, west Thailand, Laos, south Vietnam, Cambodia, Burma and on Java, Indonesia. It is thought to be extinct in northeast India and Bangladesh, and is known to be extinct in Malaysia. Between 5,000 and 10,000 individuals are estimated to survive (2).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
Historically it has been reported to occur in a wide variety of habitats, including a range of primary and secondary, tropical and subtropical, evergreen and deciduous forest-types, mixed coniferous forest, swamp forest, open woodland, forest edge, bamboo, grasslands, savannas, scrub and farmland edge, from sea-level to at least 2,100 m. Contemporary records are mostly limited to dry deciduous forests, with the highest densities occurring near undisturbed rivers and wetlands (Brickle 2002); access to water and human disturbance have a strong influence on the species's abundance and distribution (Brickle 2002, J. C. Eames in litt. 2004). It has been hypothesized that the species favours open deciduous forest as it may allow large clutches to be laid to coincide with a seasonal flush of fallen fruit (Brickle 2002).


Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Green peafowl are found in a wide range of habitats including primary and secondary forest, both tropical and subtropical, as well as evergreen and deciduous. They may also be found amongst bamboo, on grasslands, savannah, scrub and farmland edge (2).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Barcode data: Pavo muticus

The following is a representative barcode sequence, the centroid of all available sequences for this species.


There is 1 barcode sequence available from BOLD and GenBank.   Below is the sequence of the barcode region Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 (COI or COX1) from a member of the species.  See the BOLD taxonomy browser for more complete information about this specimen.  Other sequences that do not yet meet barcode criteria may also be available.

AACCGATGATTATTTTCAACCAACCACAAAGACATTGGCACTCTTTACCTAATTTTCGGCACATGAGCGGGCATAGCTGGAACAGCACTT---AGCCTGCTAATCCGCGCAGAGCTGGGACAACCAGGAACCCTTCTAGGAGAC---GACCAAATCTATAATGTAATCGTTACAGCCCATGCCTTCGTCATAATCTTCTTTATAGTTATACCCATTATAATCGGCGGCTTTGGAAACTGACTAGTACCGCTCATA---ATCGGCGCCCCAGACATGGCATTCCCACGCATAAACAACATAAGCTTCTGACTCCTCCCACCTTCCTTCCTTCTTCTACTAGCATCTTCAACCGTAGAAGCCGGCGCTGGTACAGGATGAACCGTCTATCCACCCCTAGCTGGCAACCTTGCCCATGCCGGGGCATCAGTAGACCTA---GCTATTTTTTCCCTCCACCTGGCAGGTGTATCCTCAATTCTAGGGGCTATTAACTTTATCACTACCATTATTAACATAAAACCCCCCGCACTATCACAATATCAAACACCTCTATTCGTATGGTCTGTCCTTATTACTGCCATCCTCTTACTCCTTTCTTTACCAGTCCTAGCTGCT---GGGATCACAATACTACTTACTGACCGTAACCTCAACACCACATTCTTTGATCCAGCAGGAGGAGGAGACCCAGTCCTATATCAACACCTATTCTGATTCTTTGGTCACCCCGAAGTCTATATCCTCATCCTCCCAGGCTTCGGAATAATCTCTCATGTAGTAGCATATTATGCAGGAAAAAAA---GAACCATTCGGATACATAGGAATAGTTTGAGCCATATTATCAATCGGATTTTTAGGCTTTATTGTATGAGCCCACCACATATTTACAGTCGGAATGGACGTAGACACCCGAGCTTACTTTACATCAGCTACCATAATCATCGCAATTCCAACTGGCATCAAAGTCTTTAGCTGACTA---GCAACCCTGCATGGAGGG---ATAATCAAATGGGATCCACCCATGCTATGGGCTCTAGGATTCATCTTCCTATTTACTATTGGAGGCTTAACAGGAATTGTCCTTGCCAACTCATCATTAGATATTGCCCTCCACGACACCTACTATGTAGTAGCCCACTTCCACTATGTC---CTCTCAATGGGGGCAGTTTTTGCCATTTTAGCAGGATTTACTCACTGATTTCCCCTCTTTACAGGCTTCACCCTACACCCCTCATGAACTAAAGCACACTTTGGAGTAATATTCACAGGAGTTAACCTAACCTTCTTCCCCCAGCACTTCTTAGGCTTAGCCGGAATGCCTCGA---CGATACTCAGATTACCCTGATGCCTACACC---CTATGAAACACTCTATCCTCTATTGGCTCTTTAATCTCAATAACAGCCGTAATCATATTAATATTCATTGTTTGAGAAGCTTTCTCGGCAAAACGAAAAGTC---CTTCAACCTGAATTAACTGCCACTAAC
-- end --

Download FASTA File
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Statistics of barcoding coverage: Pavo muticus

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 2
Specimens with Barcodes: 2
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
EN
Endangered

Red List Criteria
A2cd+3cd+4cd

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2013

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S.

Contributor/s
Brickle, N., Choudhury, A., Duckworth, W., Eames, J.C., Evans, T., Meckvichai, W., Pollard, E. & Tran Vy, N.

Justification
This majestic species has a very rapidly declining and severely fragmented population, primarily owing to intense habitat conversion and high hunting levels. Negative population trends and habitat fragmentation are projected to continue. The species therefore qualifies as Endangered.


History
  • 2012
    Endangered
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Status

The green peafowl is listed as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List 2007 (1) and is listed on Appendix II of CITES (3).
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Population

Population
Although rare compared with historic numbers, improved survey methodology and increased effort has led to an increase in the reporting rate and thus the population estimate has been revised upwards to 10,000-19,999 mature individuals, to reflect this improved knowledge. This equates to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000 individuals. Nevertheless this remains a coarse estimate and warrants refinement.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
Widespread hunting for meat and feathers, and collection of eggs and chicks, combined with habitat modification and human disturbance, has caused a catastrophic decline throughout much of the species's range. Fragmentation has isolated many small populations, increasing their susceptibility to local extinction, but selective logging appears to have no adverse effects on peafowl distribution (Brickle 2002). Other threats may include trade in the male's spectacular train feathers. In 2008, individuals of this species were reportedly being sold illegally for IDR200,000 (at the time around US$22) in the animal markets of Java (ProFauna Indonesia in litt. 2008). It is regarded as a crop-pest by farmers in China and Thailand (W. Meckvichai in litt. 2004), and is consequently poisoned (Han et al. 2009). The spread of human settlement presents the greatest threat, directly through hunting pressure and habitat loss, but also indirectly by preventing access to otherwise suitable habitat.

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Inevitably, the green peacock is hunted for its extravagant train feathers, but also for meat. Chicks and eggs are collected for the pet trade and farmers poison adults as they are thought of as a crop-pest, particularly in China. Habitat change and disturbance are also threats, reducing breeding success (2).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. The species is protected in China, although this is difficult to enforce in remote mountainous areas (Han et al. 2009). It is known from many protected areas, including important populations in Thailand, Cambodia, Myanmar and Indonesia (J. C. Eames in litt. 2004, W. Meckvichai in litt. 2004). These include: Huai Kha Kheng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand; Ujung Kulon and Baluran National Parks, Indonesia; Yok Don National Park, Vietnam; Lomphat, Phnom Prich and Kulen Promtep wildlife sanctuaries, Chhep and Eastern Mondulkiri protected forests and Seima Biodiversity Conservation Area, Cambodia; Xe Pian National Protected Area, Laos (Brickle 2002), and Shuangbai Konglonghe Nature Reserve, China (Liu et al. 2009). The core zone of Seima Biodiversity Conservation Area has recently been extended (T. Evans in litt. 2007) and increased education and patrolling is likely to improve the prospects for this important population, now known to number several hundred individuals. Extensive public awareness campaigns have been carried out in China and Laos. A captive breeding programme has been initiated in collaboration with the World Pheasant Association as a first step towards reintroducing birds into Peninsular Malaysia. The Cambodian Galliformes Conservation Programme through the Forestry Administration and the World Pheasant Association have conducted status surveys at a number of sites within north-west Cambodia. A model was developed to predict peafowl distribution and abundance at the landscape scale based upon distance to and from water and villages (Brickle 2002). In 2008, authorities in Java confiscated at least 17 individuals of this species from animal markets and residences (ProFauna Indonesia in litt. 2008).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue research into its range, status, habitat requirements and interactions with people to inform management within protected areas. Clarify its status in India. Further develop the captive-breeding programme and initiate additional conservation awareness campaigns in Myanmar and Cambodia, while continuing existing ones. Develop landscape-level management recommendations for key areas, including the establishment of new protected areas where appropriate. Promote strict enforcement of regulations relating to hunting and pesticide use within protected areas supporting populations in Indochina. Encourage a total ban on trade in live birds and train feathers in all range countries.

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Conservation

Green peafowl populations are found in many of the protected areas across the range, and wide-ranging public education programmes have been held throughout China and Laos. Distribution and status surveys are necessary to establish the effects of habitat fragmentation, and education programmes such as those in China and Laos should be extended into Burma and Cambodia. More protected areas would also be beneficial, but it is important to ensure that hunting bans are enforced in these areas. Green peafowl are currently listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, but there are calls for it to be upgraded to Appendix I, to enforce a total ban on trade in live birds and train feathers (2).
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Wikipedia

Green peafowl

The green peafowl (Pavo muticus) (from Latin Pavo, peafowl; muticus, Mute, docked or curtailed)[2] is a large galliform bird that is found in the tropical forests of Southeast Asia. It is also known as the Java peafowl, but this term is properly used to describe the nominate subspecies endemic to the island of Java. It is the closest relative of the Indian peafowl or blue peafowl (Pavo cristatus), which is mostly found on the Indian subcontinent.

Description[edit]

Adult Female head and upper neck
Male profile

Unlike the related Indian peafowl, the sexes of green peafowl are quite similar in appearance, especially in the field. Both sexes have long upper tail coverts which cover the actual tail underneath. In the male this extends up to two meters decorated with eyespots or ocelli while in the female the coverts are green and much shorter just covering the tail. Outside the breeding season, however, the male's train is moulted and it can be difficult to distinguish the sexes unless they are observed up close. The neck and breast feathers of both sexes are iridescent green and have a scaly appearance. In the male, the scapulars, median and greater wing coverts are blue while the lesser coverts are green and form a triangle on the shoulder when the wing is closed. The secondaries are black and in some subspecies the tertiaries are brown and/or barred with a faint pattern. The female has blue lesser coverts and therefore lacks the "triangle" at the wing shoulder. Overall the female has more coppery neck scales as well as more barring on the back as well as the primaries. Both sexes have shafted crests, and are long-legged, heavy-winged and long-tailed in silhouette. The crest of the female has slightly wider plumes while those of the male are thinner and taller. The facial skin is double striped with a white to light blue and beside the ear is a yellow to orange crescent. The dark triangle below the eye towards the eyebrow is bluish-green in the male and brown in the female. Seen from a distance, they are generally dark coloured birds with pale vermillion or buff coloured primaries which are quite visible in their peculiar flight which has been described as a true flapping flight with little gliding that one associates with Galliform birds.

Green peafowl are generally more silent than Indian peafowl. The male of some subspecies, especially imperator, have a loud call of ki-wao, which is often repeated. The female has a loud aow-aa call with an emphasis on the first syllable. The male may also make a similar call. The males call from their roost sites at dawn and dusk.[3]

Green peafowl are large birds, amongst the largest living galliforms in terms of overall size, though rather lighter-bodied than the wild turkey, and perhaps the longest extant, wild bird in total length. The male is 1.8–3 m (5.9–9.8 ft) in total length but this includes its tail covert (or "train") which itself measures 1.4–1.6 m (4.6–5.2 ft). The tail coverts are even longer than those of the male Indian peafowl but are shorter than those of the arguses. The adult female is around half the total length of the breeding male at 1–1.1 m (3.3–3.6 ft) in length. By body mass, the green peafowl is the most sexual dimorphic of galliforms and among the most dimorphic in size of all birds. The adult male weighs 3.85–5 kg (8.5–11.0 lb), which is around 4 times as heavy as the adult female, at 1–1.2 kg (2.2–2.6 lb). It has a relatively large wingspan that averages around 1.2 m (3.9 ft) and can reach 1.6 m (5.2 ft) in big males. The green peafowl is capable of sustained flight and is often observed on wing.[4]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

The green peafowl was widely distributed in Southeast Asia in the past from eastern and north-eastern India, northern Myanmar and southern China, extending through Laos, and Thailand into Vietnam, Cambodia, Peninsular Malaysia and the islands of Java. Records from northeastern India have been questioned and old records are possibly of feral birds.[5] The ranges have reduced with habitat destruction and hunting.[3]

Green peafowls are found in a wide range of habitats including primary and secondary forest, both tropical and subtropical, as well as evergreen and deciduous. They may also be found amongst bamboo, on grasslands, savannas, scrub and farmland edge. In Vietnam, the preferred habitat was found to be dry deciduous forest close to water and away from human disturbance.[6] Proximity to water appears to be an important factor.[7]

Taxonomy[edit]

1781 painting by Maruyama Okyo

The species was first classified as Pavo muticus by Carolus Linnaeus, although it was previously described in Europe by Ulisse Aldrovandi as "Pavo Iaponensis" based on a Japanese painting given to the pope from the Emperor of Japan. Interestingly, these birds were depicted as having no spurs; Linnaeus followed Aldrovandi's description. The Japanese had imported green peafowl from Southeast Asia for hundreds of years, and the birds were frequently depicted in Japanese paintings. As a result, the type locality described by Linnaeus was "Habitat in Japonia", even though the species is not native to Japan. Today, there are no wild green peafowl in Japan, though the feral Indian peafowl of Japan have some green peafowl genes. François Levaillant was one of the first western ornithologists to see a live bird, imported from Macau to an animal collection in Cape of Good Hope. From an Indian painting, George Shaw described a peafowl native to India with a "blue head" and an "upright lanceolate crest", which he named Pavo spicifer, the spike-crested peacock. A third form of green peafowl was described in 1949 by Jean Delacour, as imperator, found in Indo-China. From the advice of a bird dealer in Hong Kong, Delacour concluded there were three races of green peafowl, lumping spicifer into the species as well. Today most authorities recognize these three:[8][9][10]

  • Pavo muticus muticus, the "Java peafowl" (nominate). Extant population endemic to Java. Extinct populations from the Malay Peninsula from the Kra Isthmus extending south to Kedah have also been described as muticus, but this is highly controversial. Unconfirmed sightings in Southern Thailand persist, but they are difficult to confirm due to tensions between the Malay rebels and the Thai government. Often described as the most colourful of the three subspecies, the neck and breast is a metallic golden-green with cerulean blue wing coverts. Females have prominent barring on the back and tertials.
  • P. m. imperator, the "Indo-Chinese peafowl." From east Burma to Thailand, southern China and Indochina, this subspecies is the most common has the widest distribution. Its former range may have extended to Macau and Hainan. imperator is similar to muticus but its neck is a darker green and has more black on its wing coverts and secondaries. The facial skin is more intense in colouration compared to the other races.
P. m. spicifer, captive bird at Jurong Bird Park
  • P. m. spicifer, the "Burmese peafowl." Found in northwestern Burma towards southwestern Thailand. Formerly also in Bangladesh as well as northern Malaysia. Birds in Northeast India are sometimes considered extinct but are still occasionally sighted. However, sightings have sometimes been questioned as feral or escaped birds. Delacour considered the west and east sides of the Irrawaddy river to be the dividing line between spicifer and imperator respectively, but this is unsubstantiated. A population of spicifer was reintroduced to Hlawga National Park east of the Irrawaddy river. This subspecies is larger and has a more robust build compared to other subspecies. Sometimes described as "duller" than the other forms, it has a matte gun metal-blue to olive-green neck and breast, and more black on the wing-coverts and outer web of secondaries. The crown of the male is violet-blue which often extends further down the nape than other subspecies, demarcating the colours of the crown and neck.

Delacour dismissed several aberrant specimens to be individual variations, but stated that through further research, more subspecies may be discovered. Few studies have been conducted to substantiate Delacour's classification of green peafowl into three subspecies, even though it is accepted by nearly all authorities. Some authors have suggested that the population found in Yunnan, which are traditionally classified as imperator, may be another race.[11] The authors of a study in China, which was to determine the divergence period between green and Indian peafowl, also support this classification. They note there appears to be two different forms of green peafowl in Yunnan which should be classified as distinct subspecies.[12] Although research by Ettore Randi suggested that the green peafowl of Malaysia were the same subspecies as the extant muticus muticus of Java, further research has shown the two populations were distinct. Due to imperator's large range in Indochina, other subspecies within its range have also been proposed, notably annamensis of Southeast Asia and yunnanensis of Yunnan.[13]

Behaviour[edit]

The green peafowl is a forest bird which nests on the ground laying 3 to 6 eggs.[14]

It has been widely believed that the green peafowl is polygynous, but unlike the Indian peafowl, males are solitary and do not display in leks. Instead the solitary males are highly territorial and form harems with no pair bonds.

However, the theory that the male is polygynous also conflicts with observations in captivity; pairs left alone with no human interaction have been observed to be strongly monogamous. The close similarity between both sexes also suggests a different breeding system in contrast to that of the Indian peafowl. Thus, some authors have suggested that the harems seen in the field are juvenile birds and that males are not promiscuous.[3]

They usually spend time on or near the ground in tall grasses and sedges. Family units roost in trees at a height of 10–15 m (33–49 ft).[3] The diet consists mainly of fruits, invertebrates, reptiles, frogs and rodents. As with the other member of its genus, the green peafowl can even hunt venomous snakes. Ticks and termites, flower petals, buds leaves and berries are favorite foods of adult peafowl.

Status[edit]

Due to hunting and a reduction in extent and quality of habitat, as well as poaching, the green peafowl is evaluated as Endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It is listed on Appendix II of CITES. The world population has declined rapidly and the species no longer occurs in many areas of its past distribution. The last strongholds for the species are in protected areas such as Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary in Thailand, Cat Tien National Park in Vietnam and Baluran National Park in Java, Indonesia. The population in the wild was estimated to be about 5,000 to 10,000 individuals around 1995.[3]

Although there is no natural range overlap with the Indian peafowl, hybridisation with the Indian peafowl is still a potential threat. The two species produce fertile hybrids and feral Indian peafowl may hybridize with wild green peafowl. In captivity hybrids are called "spaulding" peafowl and are used by breeders to create different breeds. Through backcrossing some hybrids become almost indistinguishable from pure green peafowl.[15] Because some aviculturists refer to all races as "Java peafowl", the subspecies of green peafowl are also mixed in captivity and there are many captive birds of unknown provenance, further complicating the issue of whether there are only three subspecies. Green peafowl are sometimes selectively bred according to similar colouration, even if the origins of the birds are different. In Thailand, captive green peafowl are sometimes released in the vicinity of a breeding station even though their true origins remain unknown.

In 2005, The Star reported that successful reintroductions were being made in Malaysia by the World Pheasant Association (WPA).[16] The article stated that the genetic research proved the Javan and Malay peafowl were genetically identical and the subspecies muticus was introduced - the scientific community consensus. However, the assumption that the Malaysian and Javanese muticus birds are the same subspecies remains controversial, so it is uncertain which subspecies was introduced.[15] At least some of the birds introduced in Malaysia were actually spicifer, and others imported from Java, which was once found on the northern tip of the country.

National symbol[edit]

The Green Peacock was a royal symbol of Burma's monarchs

Although the Burmese or grey peacock-pheasant is the national bird of Myanmar, the green peafowl was an ancient symbol of the monarchs of Burma.[17] It was also shown during British colonial times on the flag of the governor and the naval ensign, as well as on the flag of the State of Burma from 1943–1945 and on the currency of independent Burma as well.

Fighting peacock

The flag of the National League for Democracy party a stylized fighting peacock next to a star.

References[edit]

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2013). "Pavo muticus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Johnsgard, P.A. (1999). The Pheasants of the World: Biology and Natural History. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution Press. p. 374. ISBN 1-56098-839-8. 
  3. ^ a b c d e BirdLife International 2006. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. Cambridge, UK. pp. 1052–1087 Pavo muticus PDF
  4. ^ Biddle, Tami Davis, Pheasants, Partridges, and Grouse : A Guide to the Pheasants, Partridges, Quails, Grouse, Guineafowl, Buttonquails, and Sandgrouse of the World (Princeton Field Guides). Princeton University Press (2002), ISBN 978-0-691-08908-9
  5. ^ Rasmussen, P. C. & J. C. Anderton (2005) The Birds of South Asia. Smithsonian Institution & Lynx Edicions.
  6. ^ Brickle, Nick W. (2002). "Habitat use, predicted distribution and conservation of green peafowl (Pavo muticus) in Dak Lak Province, Vietnam". Biological Conservation 105 (2): 189. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(01)00182-3. 
  7. ^ Brickle, N. W., Nguyen Cu, Ha Quy Quynh, Nguyen Thai Tu Cuong and Hoang Van San (1998) The Status and Distribution of Green Peafowl Pavo muticus in Dak Lak Province, Vietnam. BirdLife International - Vietnam Programme, Hanoi, VietnamHanoi. PDF
  8. ^ Zoological Museum Amsterdam. Accessed 20 April 2008
  9. ^ Clements, James F. (2007). The Clements Checklist of the Birds of the World, ed. 6. London: Christopher Helm. ISBN 978-0-7136-8695-1. 
  10. ^ Dickinson, Edward C.(editor) (2003). The Howard and Moore Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World, ed. 3. ISBN 0-7136-6536-X. .
  11. ^ Madge, Steve & Phil McGowan (2002) Pheasants, Partridges, and Grouse:A Guide to the Pheasants, Partridges, Quails, Grouse, Guineafowl, Buttonquails, and Sandgrouse of the World. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, N.J. ISBN 0-7136-3966-0
  12. ^ Ouyang, Yi Na (2008). "Genetic Divergence between Pavo muticus and Pavo cristatus by Cyt b Gene". Journal of Yunnan Agricultural University. 
  13. ^ Mennig, Wolfgang. "The Last Chance for the Green Peafowl (Pavo muticus)?". WPA Germany. Retrieved 23 March 2012. 
  14. ^ Grimmett, R.; Inskipp, C.; Inskipp, T. (1999). Birds of India: Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-04910-6. 
  15. ^ a b Mennig, Wolfgang. "Green Peafowl and Hybrids Tips and Tricks to identify unpure birds". World Pheasant Association. Retrieved 22 February 2012. 
  16. ^ Chiew, Hilary, The Star, Malaysia, The return of the Green peafowl, 11 January 2005. [1]
  17. ^ http://www.crwflags.com/fotw/flags/mm-hist.html
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