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Overview

Distribution

occurs (regularly, as a native taxon) in multiple nations

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National Distribution

United States

Origin: Exotic

Regularity: Regularly occurring

Currently: Present

Confidence: Confident

Type of Residency: Year-round

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Global Range: RESIDENT: Pacific slope of Middle America from central Sinaloa and western Durango south to northwestern Costa Rica (to Gulf of Nicoya and San Jose region), also in arid Comayagua Valley on Caribbean slope of Honduras. Introduced (possibly not established) in southern Florida and Puerto Rico.

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Physical Description

Size

Length: 24 cm

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Ecology

Habitat

Comments: ALL SEASONS: Deciduous forest, arid scrub, swamps, open woodland, forest edge, occasionally around towns and villages, mostly in arid or semi-arid situations (AOU 1983). Roosts in trees along streams in Guatemala. In suburbs and wooded pastures in Puerto Rico. BREEDING: In native habitat, nests usually in excavations in termitaria (AOU 1983).

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Habitat and Ecology

Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Migration

Non-Migrant: No. All populations of this species make significant seasonal migrations.

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make local extended movements (generally less than 200 km) at particular times of the year (e.g., to breeding or wintering grounds, to hibernation sites).

Locally Migrant: No. No populations of this species make annual migrations of over 200 km.

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Trophic Strategy

Comments: Eats especially wild figs, also seeds, nuts, berries, blossoms, and possibly insects. Diet includes casuarina fruits in Florida (Terres 1980).

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General Ecology

Forms large noisy flocks.

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Life History and Behavior

Life Expectancy

Lifespan, longevity, and ageing

Maximum longevity: 16.2 years (captivity) Observations: One specimen lived 16.2 years in captivity (Brouwer et al. 2000).
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Reproduction

Clutch size usually 3-5. Incubation by female, usually 30 days to hatch first egg. Young fly at about 6 weeks (Terres 1980).

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Conservation

Conservation Status

National NatureServe Conservation Status

United States

Rounded National Status Rank: NNA - Not Applicable

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NatureServe Conservation Status

Rounded Global Status Rank: G4 - Apparently Secure

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IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
LC
Least Concern

Red List Criteria

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s

Justification
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is very large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
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Population

Population
Partners in Flight estimate the total population to number 500,000-4,999,999 individuals (A. Panjabi in litt. 2008).

Population Trend
Stable
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Names and Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Comments: Possibly constitutes a superspecies with A. azurea of South America (AOU 1983).

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