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Overview

Brief Summary

Biology

Blyth's tragopan breeds from March or early April through to May, nesting either on the ground or in trees, usually in an abandoned nest of another species. Clutch size is between two and six eggs, which are thought to be incubated for approximately 28 to 30 days. Males have been observed bringing food to the incubating female in the nest, and during the few occasions in captivity when females have vacated the nest to feed, males have generally been noted to take over incubation (7). Diet is believed to consist of a variety of leaves, seeds, berries, fruits, buds and invertebrates, and even frogs have apparently featured in the diet in captivity (2).
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Description

This brilliantly-coloured pheasant is the largest of all tragopans (4), and is easily recognised by its bright yellow bare facial skin, rusty-red head, neck and breast, and smoky-grey lower breast and belly (5). The back and rest of the body is brownish red, densely spotted with small white dots (4). A distinctive black band extends from the base of the bill to the crown and another black band extends behind the eye. Like other tragopans, males have two pale-blue fleshy 'horns' that become erect during courtship, and a brilliantly coloured, inflatable lappet that hangs from the throat. The lappet is yellow bordered with blue, and like the horns, can be expanded and exposed during courtship display. (6). Females are dark brown with a mixture of black, buff and white mottling (4).
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Distribution

Range Description

Tragopan blythii occurs from Bhutan, through Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram and Manipur in north-east India, and north Myanmar, to south-east Tibet and north-west Yunnan, China (BirdLife International 2001). It has not been recorded since the early 1970s in Bhutan (S. Sherub in litt. 2012). Recent information suggests it is rare in most of India, though locally common at a few sites in Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh (A. Rahmani in litt. 2012). It is uncommon or rare in the Chin Hills-Mt Victoria region of west Myanmar (T. Htin Hla in litt. 2007), where although it may have declined good evidence is lacking (J. C. Eames in litt. 2004). It is also locally uncommon on Mt Majed and Mt Emawbon in eastern Kachin State, Myanmar (T. Htin Hla in litt. 2007). Call counts detected 14 pairs in the 50 km2 Blue Mountain National Park, Mizoram.

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Historic Range:
Burma, China, India

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Range

Occurs from Bhutan, through north-east India and north Myanmar, to south-east Tibet and south-central China (2) (5). Two subspecies are recognised: T. b. molesworthi is much rarer than T. b. blythii and reported only from east Bhutan and the adjacent Mishmi hills in north-east India (2) (4).
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Ecology

Habitat

Habitat and Ecology

Habitat and Ecology
It inhabits subtropical and temperate, evergreen oak and rhododendron forests, generally preferring a dense understorey, often dominated by bamboos or ferns, in steep or rocky terrain. Its documented altitudinal range is from 1,400 m (winter) up to 3,300 m (summer), but the majority of records come from a rather narrower band (1,800-2,400 m).


Systems
  • Terrestrial
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Found in densely wooded valleys and hillsides, preferring the undergrowth of evergreen oak and rhododendron forests, often dominated by bamboo or ferns (2) (5). Documented from 1,400 metres (winter) up to 3,300 metres (summer), but most records are at between 1,800 and 2,400 metres above sea level (5).
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Molecular Biology and Genetics

Molecular Biology

Statistics of barcoding coverage: Tragopan blythii

Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLDS) Stats
Public Records: 0
Specimens with Barcodes: 4
Species With Barcodes: 1
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Conservation

Conservation Status

IUCN Red List Assessment


Red List Category
VU
Vulnerable

Red List Criteria
C2a(i)

Version
3.1

Year Assessed
2012

Assessor/s
BirdLife International

Reviewer/s
Butchart, S. & Symes, A.

Contributor/s
Choudhury, A., Eames, J.C., Ghose, D., Kumar, S., Lianxian, H., Pack-Blumenau, A., St Jalme, M., Zaw, U., Rahmani, A. & Sherub, S.

Justification
This species qualifies as Vulnerable because its total population is believed to be small, declining and scattered in small subpopulations within a severely fragmented range. Widespread high levels of hunting and continuing habitat destruction will inevitably exacerbate this situation.

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Current Listing Status Summary

Status: Endangered
Date Listed: 06/02/1970
Lead Region: Foreign (Region 10) 
Where Listed: Entire


Population detail:

Population location: Entire
Listing status: E

For most current information and documents related to the conservation status and management of Tragopan blythii , see its USFWS Species Profile

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Status

Classified as Vulnerable (VU) on the IUCN Red List 2007 (1) and listed on Appendix I of CITES (3).
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Population

Population
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Population Trend
Decreasing
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Threats

Major Threats
In north-east India, deforestation is a significant threat, primarily as a result of shifting cultivation. Together with fuelwood-collection and commercial timber extraction, this is rapidly fragmenting suitable habitat, even within protected areas, where enforcement of regulations is often absent or impossible. Hunting for food is the other major threat, particularly in Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh, where large-scale snaring of pheasants and partridges by local people is an increasing problem. The population in Arunachal Pradesh is under threat from hydroelectric project developments, and associated road-building and residential expansion (A. Rahmani in litt. 2012). Little data on the exploitation of this species is available from Myanmar, making it difficult to assess the severity of the threat there (J. C. Eames in litt. 2004). Even in Bhutan, high levels of grazing and slash-and-burn agriculture are potentially significant problems.

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Ongoing habitat loss through deforestation and conversion of land for agriculture is threatening this colourful species throughout its range, along with large-scale hunting and snaring of pheasants and partridges by local people for food (7). Forest clearance is a significant threat in north-east India, primarily as a result of shifting cultivation, which together with logging and fuelwood collection, is rapidly fragmenting remaining habitat, even within protected areas. High levels of grazing and slash-and-burn agriculture in Bhutan are also significant concerns. As a result of these threats, the population of Blyth's tragopan is believed to be declining, and small subpopulations are becoming increasingly scattered within a severely fragmented range (5).
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Management

Conservation Actions

Conservation Actions
Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I. The species is legally protected in all countries. It occurs in several protected areas, including: two small wildlife sanctuaries and a community reserve in Nagaland; the Blue Mountain National Park in Mizoram; Mouling National Park (A. Choudhury in litt. 2004), Sessa Orchid Sanctuary (Choudhury 2003), and Eaglenest Mehao and Dibang wildlife sanctuaries in Arunachal Pradesh; Thrumsing La National Park in Bhutan; Gaoligongshan National Park in China (Han Lianxian in litt. 2004), and Natma Taung National Park in Myanmar. Surveys for the species have been conducted in many areas in north-east India. An international studbook exists documenting the captive population held at locations in North America and Europe; however, recent analysis found the captive population is declining, ageing and highly inbred and requires new founders if it is not to be lost as a conservation resource for the species (St Jalme and Chavanne 2005). Work has since begun to move all of the captive birds in Europe to one location, and plans were in place to exchange birds between Europe and North America in an effort to introduce new blood lines to both populations (Jacken 2009).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Design and implement monitoring projects in Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram. Initiate a conservation awareness programme with communities in range areas, focusing on the effects of over-exploitation, and encourage local tourism initiatives. Continue (or initiate) surveys to establish its distribution, status and habitat requirements in Myanmar, Arunachal Pradesh, Bhutan, Yunnan and south-east Tibet. Use modern methods to study its ecology. Research the taxonomic status of the separate populations. Review the adequacy of the current protected areas system, to evaluate whether new areas in Myanmar, north-east India and south-east Tibet could be feasibly and usefully protected. Promote the careful management of existing captive populations and introduce new founders. Enforce laws preventing poaching and trade of the species (A. Rahmani in litt. 2012).

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Conservation

Blyth's tragopan is legally protected throughout its range, and occurs in several protected areas. However, enforcement of regulations within some of these protected areas is evidently lacking or impossible, and they cannot therefore be considered totally safe from the human-imposed threats that exist elsewhere. As well as stricter enforcement, there is an urgent need for conservation awareness programmes within local communities, highlighting the effects of over-exploitation (5).
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Wikipedia

Blyth's Tragopan

Blyth’s tragopan (Tragopan blythii) or the grey-bellied tragopan is a pheasant that is a vulnerable species. The common name commemorates Edward Blyth (1810–1873), English zoologist and Curator of the Museum of the Asiatic Society of Bengal.

Distribution and population[edit]

The animal’s population is small and is believed to be decreasing at a rapid rate. Blyth’s tragopan is located in many different areas, including Bhutan through north-east India, north Myanmar to south-east Tibet, and also China. The total population is estimated to be about 2,500 to 9,999 birds.[1] This estimate is a very small number compared to some of its relative birds. Tragopan blythii normally flocks to wooded areas as it prefers the undergrowth of evergreen oak and rhododendron forests, and other dark, quiet places. This bird has a higher elevation than most birds.

Taxonomy[edit]

Subspecies[edit]

There are two recognized subspecies:

  • T. b. blythii (Jerdon, 1870) - nominate - Himalayas of northeast India to southwest China and northern Myanmar
  • T. b. molesworthi (ECS Baker, 1914, ) - Molesworth's tragopan - eastern Bhutan

Description[edit]

Blyth’s tragopan pheasant is the largest of the genus Tragopan. Like most pheasants, the male is brightly colored. It is recognized by its rusty red head, yellow facial skin, and that it is spotted with small white dots on its back called ocelli. A black band extends from the base of the bill to the crown coupled with another black band extending behind the eyes. Like the rest of the tragopans, males have two pale blue horns that become erect during matting.[2] Its lappet, a decorated flap, hangs from the throat and is brightly colored. This lappet can be expanded and exposed during mating season as well.[3] Females are not as brightly colored as the male tragopan, for they do not need the extravagant appearance to attract a male counterpart. Overall, they are dark brown with a mixture of black, buff and white mottling.[4] Their simple and dull look is a protection mechanism from other animals, known as camouflage. It also allows the females to protect their young that are in the early stages of life.

Diet[edit]

Blyth’s tragopan are generalists. In the wild, they consume seeds, berries, fruits, and buds. Captive birds usually consume insects, worms, and even small frogs. While they are primarily vegetarians, most birds have a predilection for berries and fruit.

Behaviour[edit]

Migration[edit]

The bird primarily moves up and down the slopes in search for food. It is, however, uncommon for this species to travel far, due to the change in climate from area to area. This is a result of the mild winters in their habitat, which are tolerable for longer periods of time. For the majority of the species, travel is only necessary in attempting to avoid the drying out of their vegetation. In this case, they may move down mountain sides for more comfortable living conditions and a readier food supply. There is little information or support on how the Blyth’s tragopan moves, but it is suggested that they travel together in groups of four to five, much like other species of tragopans.[3]

Reproduction[edit]

TragopanBlythWolf.jpg

Blyth’s tragopan starts mating in April and continues well into May. The males advertise themselves with flamboyant displays to attract females.

Courtship ritual[edit]

Mating display may involve bowing and scraping the ground with their wings slightly raised and their flesh horns fully dilated while projected forward. The more flamboyant and extravagant the male acts, the more likely they are to attract a female. If the female does not respond, the male intensifies this wild behavior to draw more attention to him. The male then proceeds to strut around the female, in an attempt to distract the female. He then continues the movements with his breast pushed forward and his wings extended into the air.[3]

Growth and development[edit]

After a female becomes impregnated she can lay up to two to five eggs. The incubation period for eggs lasts for about twenty-eight days. After hatching, the offspring has a similar appearance to the female hen. The male tragopans acquire red on their neck during the first spring moult. During the second year of life, full adult plumage is attained in the tragopan.[3]

Nesting[edit]

While no nests have been found in the wild, the natives of Nagaland have stated that the nests are never on the ground, but are found in trees, stumps, and small bushes. This record is consistent with the birds' desire to stay at high altitudes. The heights range from six to twenty feet above the ground. Nesting above the ground is advantageous because the seasonal rains are intensified to where flooding can sweep away all the vegetation that is found on the ground. The nests are made of sticks with a lining of smaller vegetation such as grass or weeds.[3]

Threats[edit]

In north-east India, deforestation is a major factor in the decreasing population of T. blythii, as the forests are the main source of food. By removing this source, the pheasants are left with little or no food to consume. In addition, its primary habitat is in the forest.

Overexploitation is one of the biggest threats to all birds including Blyth’s tragopan.[5] Twelve percent of bird species are threatened to extinction and overexploitation. Blyth’s tragopans are considered to be the main threat to thirty seven percent of that number. Overexploitation reduces the population of the species and causes the listing of eleven percent of the threatened birds on the IUCN Red List.[6] The biggest concern is the eleven critically endangered species for which overexploitation is believed to be the factor that the population numbers are declining.[7]

In Nagaland and Arunachal Pradesh, the pheasant is being hunted for food with large-scale snaring and are also regularly shot with guns and slingshots.According to the local tribes of eastern Nagaland the bird has become locally extinct in many of their forests where it was found commonly. The major reason for decline in population in Nagaland is over hunting.[8][9]

High levels of grazing and slash and burn agriculture in Bhutan are also significant threats. The effect of slash and burn techniques has a significant effect on the species because it takes away the entire habitat that the bird has. The population of the tragopan is believed to be declining because of these threats which are also dividing up the populations into smaller subpopulations due to fragmentation.

Fragmentation is an issue because it divides larger populations into smaller ones over a large area. The tragopans are not able to go from one area to the other because there are normally great distances between these populations. Fragmentation also does not let the pheasants get the genetic variation that they need. In order for them not to have problems with the hatchlings they need to have a diversity of different species.

Conservation[edit]

There is already some habitat set aside for the T. blythii to survive. These areas include two wildlife sanctuaries and a small reserve in Nagaland, along with some other small areas for the bird to survive.

This species is legally protected in all countries in which it is found. Conservation awareness plans need to be implemented in all areas and more people to enforce the laws that are already set in place. With these small sub communities, which are scattered over the habitat areas of the pheasant, it is becoming more and more difficult for the birds to reproduce with the genetic differences they need to survive.[4]

The Blue Mountain National park in Mizoram, India is currently taking surveys of how many different Blyth’s tragopan can be heard and seen in the area. The population was considered to be about 500 and 5000.[10] The continuing monetization for the Blyth’s tragopan is essential for the conservation management aspect of the pheasant. Together with Blue Mountain and the organization proposal there will be a way to help the Blyth’s tragopan.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2012). "Tragopan blythii". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013. 
  2. ^ Neil, D. "Tragopan". The World Book Encyclopedia (Chicago, IL: World Book, Inc) 19: 368. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Johnsongard, P. A. (1986). The Pheasants of the World. New York: Oxford University Press. 
  4. ^ a b ARKive. "Blyth’s tragopan (Tragopan blythii)". ARKive: Images of Life on Earth. Retrieved 30 April 2009. 
  5. ^ Choudhury, A. (2001). "Some bird records from Nagaland, north-east India". Forktail 17 (91-103). Retrieved 30 April 2008. 
  6. ^ BirdLife International. "Tragopan blythii 2006". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved 11 May 2006. 
  7. ^ Rosser, A. M.; S. A. Mainka (June 2002). "Overexploitation and Species Extinctions". Conservation Biology 16 (3): 584–586. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.2002.01635.x. 
  8. ^ S. Rameshkumar, S. Bhupathy, Vengotanakro, Thirumalainathan, J. Paramadandha and Pranjitsarma. Blyth’s Tragopan Tragopan blythii (Jerdon 1870) in Eastern Nagaland: Peoples’ Perception. Journal of Bombay Natural History Society. 2013. Vol 109 1&2. pp.82-86
  9. ^ McGowan, P.J. and P.J. Garson (1995). Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan 1995-1999 Pheasants. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. 
  10. ^ Ghose, Dipankar (2003). "Status survey of the Blyth’s tragopan in Blue National Park, Mizoram, India using call count technique". Current Science 84 (1): 95–96. 
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